Wireless systems


What is GSM?
The global system for mobile is a world-first cellular system to specify digital modulation. It is a second-generation system (2G) developed in Europe. Read more 

Definition of GSM :
The global system for mobile communication is a feature-rich digital wireless technology. It provides subscribers with a high quality digital wireless phone service. Read more 

The global system for mobile is a world-first cellular system to specify digital modulation. GSM was developed to solve the fragmentation problems of the first generation networks. Read more

Features of GSM :
1. GSM supports more subscriber capacity in the given spectrum. 2. It supports smaller handsets. Read more 
The transceiver antenna transmits or receives the RF signal. The analog to digital and digital to analog conversion are done in the opposite direction depending on transmission or reception. Read more 
A GSM network consists of various functional entities. Those functional entities' functions and interfaces are specified. The figure shows the generic architecture of a GSM network. Read more

GSM channel types :
GSM channels help to maintain the GSM network. It also helps GSM mobile phones connect to the GSM network and maintain the connection. Read more 

GSM frame structure :
Each GSM user transmits data burst during a time slot that is assigned to it. The transmission of bursts occurs in a particular format called GSM frame. Read more 

GSM frequency :
GSM 850 - Channel - 128-251, Up-link frequency - 824-849 MHz, Down-link frequency - 869-894 MHz. Read more 

GSM network version :
UMTS R4 techniques are preferred mobile operator, especially those with GSM legacy network. Read more 

GSM repeater :

1. GSM repeater 900 MHz(voice) - 200m2, 2. GSM repeater 900 MHz(voice) - 300m2 Read more 

Handover is the process of transferring a mobile station from one channel to the another. It is defined as a mechanism to hand over the mobile device to the neighboring cell. Read more 

Advantages and disadvantages of GSM :
Advantages: 1. High capacity 2. It is easy to implement.
Disadvantages: 1. The high complexity of system 2. Roaming profile accessible. Read more

1. Home automation. 2. Mobile telephony. Read more


What is GPRS?

The GPRS provides efficient packet mode of data transfer. It provides a cost-effective packet service supporting internet application. Read more 

Definition of GPRS :

General packet radio service (GPRS) is a packet-based mobile data service in data rate up to 172 kbps, Read more 

Features of GPRS :

1. It overlays on the existing GSM network to provide high-speed data service Depending on the coding method. It is possible to have a data rate up to 150 kbps with GPRS. Read more 

GPRS system architecture :

GPRS provides many devices without restricting data rates of transmission. The service precedence namely high, low, normal, class, reliability throughput and delay are determined by QoS profile. Read more 

GPRS frequency :

1. T-GSM-380 MHz, 2. T-GSM-410 MHz, 3. GSM-450 MHz. Read more

GPRS network

It is allowed the 2G, 3G, W-CDMA mobile network to transmit the IP packet to an external network such as the internet. Read more

GPRS Module :

GPRS module includes the following task: 1. Send, receive or delete SMS message in the SIM card and 2. Add, read and search the contact in the SIM card. Read more

Applications of GPRS :

In nowadays GPRS application like chat, multimedia, networks, personal information management, vehicle positioning, location-based services, and telematics are GPRS specific application. Read more 

Advantages and disadvantages of GPRS :

Advantages: 1. The GPRS based network has high bandwidth. 2. GPRS provides point to point services.
Disadvantages: 1. Limited capacity for all users 2. Speed much lower in reality. Read more 

Wi-Fi :

What is Wi-Fi?
Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) is an alternative to wired technology that is commonly used for connecting devices in wireless mode. Read more 

Wi-Fi feature :

1. While using Wi-Fi there is no limitation 2. Faster and secure 3. Unmatched mobility Read more

Wi-Fi technology :
Wi-Fi network uses radio technologies to transmit and receive data at high speed. 
These are governed by some set of the standard given below: 1. IEEE 802.11b 2. IEEE 802.11a 3. IEEE 802.11g Read more

Wi-Fi frequency :
Wi-Fi uses two frequency bands 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz available to use when setting up a Wi-Fi network. Read more

Wi-Fi bandwidth :

20 or 40 MHz bandwidth are uses. In this article, we will go over some simple rules to help you decide the best bandwidth to use for the wireless network. Read more

Application of Wi-Fi :

Wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) is an alternative to wired technology that is commonly used for connecting devices in wireless mode. Read more

Advantages and disadvantage of Wi-Fi :

Advantages: 1. Ease of installation 2. It is easy to add Wi-Fi client
Disadvantages: 1. Degradation in performance 2. Effect of climatic condition Read more


What is WiMAX?

WiMAX is similar to Wi-Fi. both create hot-spots. Wi-Fi can cover several hundred meters while WiMAX cover a range of 40-50 km. It provides a wireless alternative to cable, DSL, and broadband access. Read more 

WiMAX technology :

WiMAX can be used as a complementary technology to connect 802.11 hotspots to the internet. Mobile-Fi is the mobile version of WiMAX. Read more

WiMAX features

1. WiMAX support multipath. 2. Provide up to 50 km of service area range. Read more 

WiMAX standard :

WiMAX has been supporting IEEE 802.16, This standard is called IEEE 802.16, it was associated with 802.16a / REV d / e standard. Read more 

WiMAX architecture

A WiMAX system consists of two major parts: Main part is to be (i) A WiMAX base station (ii) A WiMAX receiver. Read more 

WiMAX frequency range :

1. IEEE 802.16d (Fixed WiMax) 2. IEEE 802.16e (Mobile WiMax). Read more

Applications of WiMAX :
Cable modem, digital subscriber line, T and E-carrier system and optical carrier technologies. Read more 

Advantages and disadvantages of WiMAX :

1. A single location can serve hundreds of users 2. Much faster deployment of new user comparing to wire networks
Disadvantages: 1. It has a big installation and operational cost 2. Multiple frequencies are used. Read more

Zigbee networks :

What is Zigbee networks ?

Zigbee is a wireless protocol used for wireless networking and connectivity. Zigbee is the wireless language that everyday devices use to connect to one another. Read more 

Features of Zigbee networks :

1. It incorporates power saving mechanisms for all device classes. 2. Discovery mechanism with full application confirmation. Read more 

Zigbee technology :

Zigbee network is the wireless language that every device used to connect to one another. It is the recently emerged technology of network communication based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard where IEEE stands for Institute of electrical and electronic engineers. Read more

The architecture of the Zigbee network :

Zigbee network consists of three different types of devices such as Router, Zigbee coordinator and, End devices. Read more

Zigbee topology :
There are two types of topology 1. Star topology 2. Tree topology  Read more 

Zigbee protocol :

1. Zigbee offers a wireless range of 70m indoors and 400m outdoor 2. Zigbee protocol operates on a single frequency of 2.4 GHz. Read more 

Applications of Zigbee networks :

1. Home automation 2. Telecoms application 3. Industrial automation 4. Security Read more 

Advantages and disadvantages of Zigbee networks :

Advantages: 1. Zigbee has a flexible network structure 2. It has very long battery life.
Disadvantages: 1. Zigbee disadvantages mainly include short range 2. Low complexity, and low data speed. Read more

Bluetooth : 

What is Bluetooth?

Bluetooth is an open standard that provides an ad-hoc way for connecting devices in the 10 m range. Read more 

Features of Bluetooth

1. Better IOT 2. Quick data transfer 3. Better audio quality Read more 

Bluetooth frame structure :

Access code: Access code identifies the master so that slaves within the radio range of two masters can tell which is traffic for them. It is a 72-bit field, that contains synchronization bits. Read more 

Bluetooth range 

1. Class 1 - Range of fewer than 10 meters, Class 2 - Range of 10 meters (33 feet), Class 3 - Range of 100 meters (328 feet). Read more 

Applications of Bluetooth
1. Medical requirement 2. Vending machines 3. Office requirement, faxes, PCs, laptops, handset, pager etc Read more 

Advantages and disadvantages of Bluetooth

Advantages : 1.Wireless internet connectivity 2. Easy to install
Disadvantages: 1. Bluetooth is very low bandwidth as compared to Wi-Fi 2. Bluetooth can allow only short-range communication between devices Read more 

The concept of Spread spectrum :

Spread spectrum :

Spread spectrum is a one types of techniques it can be used for transmitting radio or telecommunication signal. Features of spread spectrum | Spread spectrum model Types of spread spectrum | Applications Read more

1. Direct sequence spread spectrum ( DSSS ) : 

What is direct sequence spread spectrum :

Direct sequence spread spectrum is spread spectrum modulation technique used in telecommunication to reduce overall signal interface. Read more 

Advantages and disadvantages of a direct sequence spread spectrum :
Advantages: 1. It has the best noise and anti-jam performance 2. Simple hardware implementation.
Disadvantages: 1. DS/SS has a longer acquisition time. 2. It requires a wide-band channel with small phase distortion. Read more

Application of direct sequence spread spectrum :
1. Cordless phones operating in the 900 MHz, 2.4 GHz and 5.8 GHz bands. 2. Used military and much commercial application. 3. The unique spreading codes support code division multiple access. Read more

2. Frequency hopping spread spectrum ( FHSS ) :

What is frequency hopping spread spectrum :

Frequency hopping spread spectrum is a method of transmitting radio signals by rapidly switching a carrier. Read more

Advantages and disadvantages of frequency hopping spread spectrum 
Advantages : 1.It has less distance effect. 2. Provide greatest amount of spreading.
Disadvantages : 1. It is not useful for range and range rate measurement. 2.The modulation scheme has become obsolete Read more

Application of frequency hopping spread spectrum :

1. Wireless local area networks (WLAN) standard for Wi-Fi 2. Wireless personal area network (WPAN) standard for Bluetooth. Read more