Live use of ammeter

The ammeter is also known as the ampere meter. The ampere is the unit of the current, so the ampere meter is the type of meter which measures the magnitude of current passes through it. It is connected in series wit circuit for determining the exact value of the circuit current. 

Following precaution must be taken:


  • The meter should be capable to measure the required current.
  • Avoid short circuit.
  • The connection should be tight and clean.
  • Use the proper selection for AC or DC current.
  • The highest range should be selected (if the current value is unknown).
  • The meter should be capable to measure the required current.
  • The probe should be according to system voltage.

Difference between one-way switch and two-way switch

The main difference between one way and two-way switch is them is the number of contacts that they have. A one-way switch only has two contacts while the two-way switch has three contacts.


What is a one-way switch?

One way switch is an electrical switch, which operates as a brake switch. When it get turn on, the two terminals get connected. When we take how it turn off. the connections get fell apart because it goes on to the reverse position. It is effective in similar like areas room, washrooms, balconies, corridors, stores, etc,

What is a two-way switch?

A two-way switch is an electrical switch, It is combined one-way switches. But keep in mind, one of the terminals get merged to any of the switch but not both at a time. In this breakage can occur. When one connection is made the other gets damaged automatically.

The main key difference between one-way switch and two-way switch:

  • One way switch is only ave two terminals while two-way switches have three terminals.
  • A two-way switch can be used to control the light from two locations while a one-way switch cannot.
  • The one-way switch has defined ON and OFF states while the two-way switch does not define. 
  • In two way switch, there are two, once way switches combined in one. One of the terminals can be connected to either of the two, but not both at the same time.
  • The one-way switch also called the single-phase switch, it is effective in small rooms and for domestic electrical appliances but the two-way switch pays for multi-door large rooms, stairways, and long corridors. An easy switch top operate but a little complicated in installation.
Explore more information:
  1. Difference between switch and Bridge
 

Difference Between Lead Sheathed Wiring and Cleat Wiring

As we all know the wiring system is dangerous for life, it is a potentially dangerous task if done improperly. There are many different types of electrical wiring systems. Let us look at the different types of electrical wiring that are used in the home, company electrical and some domestic properties. Wiring technology will help to understand a few basic terms used in describe wiring system. Electrical wiring is one type of conductor, which is a material that conducts some electricity. In our home application and some other application, most of the wire is used in the insulated, meaning that they are wrapped in a nonconductive plastic coating. Here this article gives information about the difference between lead sheathed wiring and cleat wiring to better understand this topic

What is lead sheathed wiring?

The lead sheath is earthed at each and every junction to provide a path to ground for the leakage current. They are fixed means that of metal clips on wooden battens. The wiring system is very expensive. It is suitable for low voltage applications.


What is Cleat wiring?

Cleat wiring comprises of PVC insulated wires or ordinary VIR that are braided ad compounded. This type of wiring is most suitable for temporary wiring purposes such as in marriage halls, some events, some functions etc so the most important advantage of this wiring system is it saves labour cost and installation cost. So this type of wiring is important and can be very easily installed and materials can be recovered for further use.

The main key difference between lead sheathed wiring and cleat wiring are listed below:

  • In lead sheth, wiring cost is very low, while cleat wiring is costly.
  • Life is long in lead sheath wiring, while the cleat wiring life is very short.
  • Lead sheathed wiring protection against fire is very good, while the cleat wiring protection against fire is poor.
  • Material required for lead sheathed wiring for lead sheathed cables, wooden, screws, clips, or joint clips, boards, round boards, teak wood batten, etc. While in cleat wiring material required for clear, VIR or PVC cables, screw, blocks, boards, gutters.
  • Both of having low voltage is required(250 v).
  • Mechanical protection is fairly good in lead sheathed wiring, while the cleat wiring mechanical protection is low.
  • Appearance is fair in lead sheathed wiring, while appearance is not good in cleat wiring.
  • skilled labour required in lead sheathed wiring, while in cleat wiring semi-skilled labour is required.
  • Dampness protection is good in lead sheathed wiring, while in cleat wiring dampness protection is none.
  • Addition or alteration to the existing wiring in lead sheathed wiring is not very difficult, while in cleat wiring Addition or alteration to the existing wiring is very easy.
  • In lead sheathed wiring the number of points that can be wired per day by a wireman a mate is 4 while the cleat wiring is 6. 
  • Generation is fairly poor in lead sheath wiring, while the generation of cleat wiring is poor.
  • Lead sheathed wiring is mostly used for serviceman etc because of its high cost and heavy short circuit in case of leakage, while the cleat wiring is for temporary installation like for function, marriages etc.
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We hope that you have got a better understanding of this concept. Furthermore, any quires regarding this concept or some electrical or electronics projects give your feedback in the comment section below. 

Working Principle of a Synchronous Motor

What is a synchronous motor?


The definition of the synchronous motor states that, An AC motor in which at steady state, rotation of the shaft is in sync with the frequency of the applied current. The synchronous motor works as AC motor but here the total number of rotation made by the shaft is equal to the interference multiple of the frequency of the applied current.

Working principle of synchronous motor


  • The synchronous motor will work on the basic principle of magnetic locking.
  • When two unlike strong unlike magnets poles are brought together in the motor. There exists a tremendous force of extraction between those two poles. In such a condition, the two magnets said to be magnetically locked. 
  • The stator and the rotor are two main parts of the synchronous motor. The stator is the stationary part of the motor while the rotor is their rotating part. The stator excited by the three-phase supply, and the rotor is excited by the DC supply. 
  • The term excitation means the magnetic field induces in the stator and rotor both of the motor. The main aim of the excitation is to convert the stator and rotor both into an electromagnet.

The three-phase supply induces both north and south pole on the stator. The three-phase supply is sinusoidal. The polarity of their wave changes after every half cycle and because of this reason the north and south pole also varies. Thus the rotating magnetic filed develop on the stator.

The magnetic field develops on the rotor because of we have to apply DC supply. The polarity of the DC supply becomes fixed and no change in polarity, and thus the stationary magnetic field develops on the rotor. The term stationary means their north and south pole remain fixed.

 Synchronous Motor
 Synchronous Motor

The speed at which the rotating magnetic field that rotates is known as the synchronous speed. The synchronous speed of the motor  N depends on the frequency of f the supply and the number of poles of P  the motor. 

Nₛ =  120f/P

f =  The supply frequency in Hz
P = The number of poles
N = synchronous speed in RPM

When the opposite pole of the stator and rotor face with each other, the force of attraction occurs between them. The attraction force develops the torque in the clockwise direction. The torque is the kind of force that moves the object in the rotation. Thus the poles of rotor dragged towards the pole of the stator.

After every half cycle, the pole on the stator is reversed direction. The position of the rotor will remain the same because of some inertia. The inertia is the tendency of an object to remain fixed in one direction. When the pole of the stator and rotary face each other, the force of repulsion occurs between them and the torque develops in the clockwise direction.


Application of synchronous motor:


  • Power factor correction 
  • Reciprocating pump
  • rolling mills
  • Voltage regulation
  • Constant speed
  • Constant load drives.

Difference Between Donor and Acceptor Impurities

The dopping process is that adds impurities to a semiconductor. Dopping is important in increasing the conductivity of the semiconductor. There is two main forms of dopping and they are donor doping and accepted dipping. Doner doping adds impurities while the accepted dopping add impurities to the accepted. Here this article give the information about the difference between donor and accepted impurities to better understand this topic.

Difference between donor and acceptor impurities:


  • Donor impurities are also known as an n-type impurity. While in acceptor impurities are secondarily known as a p-type impurity.
  • The donor impurity atom consists of a total of 5 electrons in its valence shell. While acceptor impurity atom consists of 3 electrons in its valence shell.
  • An element like phosphorus, antimony, bismuth, arsenic, etc is donor impurities. While boron, gallium, aluminum, etc are the acceptor impurity atoms.
  • Group V element of the periodic table is considered donor impurity due to the presence of extra electron. Group III element of the periodic table is considered as the acceptor impurity of fewer electrons in the valence shell. 
  • Donor impurity gives its excess electrons present in its outermost shell to the other atom of the crystal structure. While acceptor impurity when added to a semiconductor then it accepts the charge from the neighboring atom of the crystal structure.
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Difference Between Electronegativity and Electron Affinity

The main key difference between electronegativity and electron affinity is that electronegativity is the property associated with the attracting ability of electron towards an atom. As against, electron affinity is associated with the release of energy when an electron is added to an atom. So here this article gives information about difference between electronegativity and electron affinity to better understand this topic.

Definition of electronegativity:


The ability of atom to attract an electron from outside. This property is a qualitative property of an atom, and in order to compare the electronegativities of atoms in each element, a scale where relative electronegativity values reside is used.

Definition of electron affinity:


The amount of energy liberated when a molecule or neutral atom acquires an electron from outside. This electron addition causes the formation of a negatively charged by some of the chemical species.

Difference between electronegativity and electron affinity:


  • Electronegativity is of qualitative nature whereas electron affinity is quantitative in nature.
  • Electronegativity is a unitless quantity however is generally defined in term of pulling, the one who proposed the concept. However, electron affinity is measured in KJ/mol.
  • Electronegativity is higher when the element exhibits strong attracting ability, whereas electron affinity is higher when the nuclear charge is higher.
  • Fluorine is known to be the most electronegative element whereas chlorine is known to be an element with the highest electron affinity.
  • The value of electronegativity lies between 0.7 to 3.98. While electron affinity is said to be fixed because the electron releases almost similar energy whenever added to an atom.
  • Electronegativity applied in a single atom, while electron affinity applied either an atom or molecule.
  • The property by which an electron gets attracted to an atom is electronegativity. While the property that allows, release of energy when an electron is added to the atom is electron affinity.

Difference between TCP and RTP

As we know, TCP and RTP, UDP are most common key terms in the field of electronics and network communication engineering. Most of the times these terms confuse the newbie or those who just started learning the electronics network sciences. Here this article gives the information about 


What is TCP?

TCP stands for transmission control protocol. TCP is a connection-oriented protocols in which the communicating devices establish a connection before transmitting data and close the connection after transmitting the data. 

What is RTP?


RTP stands for real-time transport protocol. It is network protocol which is used for delivering audio and video over a networks. RTP is a basically used in communication and entertainment system that involve streaming media.

The main key difference between TCP and RTP are listed below:


  • TCP stands for transmission control protocol, RTP stands for the real-time transport protocol.
  • TCP is a lossless protocol, RTP is a stateless protocol.
  • TCP is a slow process, RTP is faster than TCP.
  • TCP can't tolerate packet loss, RTP can tolerate packet loss.
  • TCP is a connection-oriented protocol that means the communicating devices establish a connection before transmitting data and close the connection after transmitting the data. While RTP is a network protocol that is used for delivering audio and video over a network.
  • TCP also provides flow control, RTP does not provide flow control.
  • TCP is more reliable, RTP is less reliable.
  • TCP is not generally used for real-time streaming, RTP is used for real-time streaming.