Difference Between Concave and Convex Lens

Concave and convex are two types of lenses that posses variation in physical shape as well as their properties. Here this article gives the basic difference between concave and convex lens to better understand this topic.

Definition of convex lens:

A convex lens is the lenses that feel massive at the centre than at the edges. The curve of the lens is outward, and as the light beams pass through the lens, it refracts them and brings them together, resulting in the convergence of light, due to which it is also named as a converging lens.

Definition of concave lens:

Concave lenses represent the type of lenses which are slender at the centre than at the border. The shape of the concave lens is round inward that bends the beams outward, causing divergence of the rays of light falling on it, so it is knowns as a diverging lens.

Difference between concave and convex lens:

  • Concave is thin at edges and thick at the center while a concave lens is this at the center but thick at its edges.
  • The focal length of a convex lens is positive, while the concave lens has a negative focal length.
  • The curvature of a convex lens is outward-facing, whereas the curvature in a concave lens if inward-facing.
  • A convex lens is used to correct hypermetropia, long-sightedness while in a concave lens corrects myopia.
  • A convex lens can form virtual as well as the real image of the object according to its distance from the lens, whereas the concave lens forms an only virtual image of the object.
  • The concave lenses are used to cure myopia while the convex lens corrects hypermetropia.
  • Convex lenses hold magnifying abilities thus are generally used in the lens of microscope and telescope but in the 
  • the convex lens is used in laser, flashlights of vehicles as well as peephole of doors.
  • A convex lens has to convert nature as it merges the light passing through it and focuses them at a particular point. While in a concave lens has diverging nature as it diverges the light rays passing through it. 
  • Due to the nature of the lens, the incident light rays either converges or diverges after passing through it. Thus, the concave lens is also known as a diverging lens while the convex lens is known as a converging lens.
  • Convex lenses hold magnifying abilities thus ar generally used in the lens of microscope and telescope, Also the human eye lens is concave in nature. But a convex lens is used in lasers, flashlights of vehicles as well as peepholes of doors.  
  • These two lenses are a cave-like structure from outside as it has a thinner middle portion and thick edges. However, in the convex lens, the edges are comparatively thinner than the centre of the lens.
  • In case of a concave lens, the body or object near it appears to be present at distant and is smaller than the actual one. However, when a body is present in front of a convex lens than it appears in a way that it is present nearer and is of larger dimensions than the original body.

Advantages and disadvantages of half adder

Half adder is a combinational arithmetic circuit that adds two numbers and it produces a sum bits and carries bits as the output form. Now here this article gives information about the advantages and disadvantages of half adders to better understand this topic. 

Advantages of Half adder:

  • Simple design, the basic building block to understanding 1-bit addition.
  • Just with an inverter, it can be converted to the half subtractor.

Disadvantages of half adder:

  • Half adders have no scope of adding the carry bit resulting from the addition of previous bits.
  • The real-time scenarios involve adding the multiple numbers of bits which cannot be accomplished using half adder.
  • It is not suitable for cascading for multi-bit additions.
  • To get rid of this problem, a full adder is required which adds three 1 bit.
  • It does not incorporate the previous carry for addition.

Difference Between AND Gate and OR Gate

Both AND and OR are the two basic logic gates designed to execute boolean operations. However, the crucial difference lies in the operation performed by them. Here this article gives information about the difference between AND and OR gate to better understand this topic.

Definition of AND gate:

A logic gate that is defined to execute the logical multiplication of binary input is known as the AND gate. We know the basic product rule that if 1 and 0 is multiplied then automatically the resultant will be 0. However when 1 and 1 are multiplied then it is the product will be 1 itself.

Definition of OR gate:

A type of logic gate that is designed to perform logical addition of two applied inputs is known as the OR gate. This logic gates follows the basic rule of the addition of digital inputs.

The main key difference between AND gate and OR gate:

  • AND gate implements logical conjunction and the OR gate implements logical disjunction.
  • AND gate gives a true output only when both input are true whereas the OR gate gives an output of true if at least one of the input is true.
  • AND gate provides the product of two binary value as its output. However, the OR gate gives the summation of the two applied binary inputs as its output.
  • The truth table of the AND gate has only true value in the output column though the truth table of the OR gate has three of them.
  • The boolean expression of the AND gate is represented as A.B. While the boolean expression of the OR the gate is given as A+B, where A and B are considered to be the two applied inputs.
  • In AND gate logic high output is achieved only when both the applied input is high. While in the OR gate, a logic high is achieved if either anyone or both are input is high.
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Difference between ultrasound and infrasound

Infrasound and ultrasound both although sounding similar are very different in nature. So Here this article gives the main key difference between ultrasound and infrasound to better understand this topic.

The main key difference between ultrasound and infrasound:

  • Ultrasound is not influenced by any such factor. Infrasound is influenced by the atmosphere so it can be used to monitor the activities of the atmosphere.
  • Ultrasound refers to the sound with a frequency higher than the upper limit of frequencies audible to normal human ears. While in infrasound refer to the sound with the frequency lower than 20 Hz which can not be heard by humans.
  • Ultrasound is commonly used to find flaws in materials to measure the thickness of objects, to find physical abnormalities in various parts of the human body, as well as in the form of a sound ranging device called as nothing but SONAR. While in infrasound is used to stabilize myopia in young kids.
  • Ultrasound is also used in micro-welding. The weld is produced by the application of high-frequency vibratory energy as the part are held together with force, While in infrasound natural disaster such as volcanic eruption, earthquake extra can be forecasted by monitoring the infrasonic wave.

Digital signature how to create

If you have an individual or entity is asked to digitally sign in a document, they can do so with utmost ease by following simple steps are followed, upon receiving an e-mail containing a link to the document which needs to be digital signed, here what one should do. You can also check out the basic key difference between a digital signature and an electronic signature to better understand this topic.

How to create a digital signature?


Step1: On clicking the link, your document opens in an electronic signature tool.
Step2: The user will be asked to agree to the electronic signing. After the user confirming the agreement and if the document was sent via focusing, you should stage with instructions to start or sign.
Step3: Clicking each tag and adhering to the instruction, the user can add the digital signature.
Step4: The final and most important step is that is to verify one's identity and follow the instruction to add the digital signature.

Benefits of digital signature

At the very core of digital signature processing and verification are security, encryption, and the use of algorithms. You can also check out the information about the advantages and disadvantages of digital signature to better understand this topic.

Benefits of digital signature:

  • It is a cost-saving and environmental sustainability.
  • It is better time management.
  • It is accessible from anywhere at any time.
  • In digital signature is more than a scribble on the screen of a device. 
  • Multiple signatures can be obtained in less time, streamlining administrative and legal processes.
  • It is helpful to identify and authenticate signatories and collect data that can later serve as evidence.
  • It offers a higher level of security than the paper contract signature.

Advantages and disadvantages of electronics signature

There are lots of plenty of reasons to get excited about this technology, but it is important to understand the advantages and disadvantages of electronic signature before deciding if they are right for your business.

Advantages of electronics signature:

  • The transaction can be undertaken over the internet with speed and efficiency.
  • Reduce the need for storage facilities and can be more secure.
  • It is quick and faster services.
  • Electronics signature are easy to use. The process allow for the signing of multiple documents at once with the right platform.
  • Reduce human error that can be associated with the courier handing confident document that needs to be delivered within the right time formats.
  • It consumes less time compared to a digital signature.
  • Online signature provides more certify that the singer who they say they are compared to just pressing on accept button that could be pressed by anyone.
  • Signatures are legally binding.
  • You can also add signature fields on the documents whenever you want before sending the document for signing.
  • You can choose to add a signature to just about any document type although the document formats allowed way from one service to another.

Disadvantages of electronics signature:

  • The security of the documents can be compromised of you choose a platform that doesn't focus on encryptions.
  • The digital signature needs to be verified and there is no legal means stipulating this verification process.
  • The process of using a digital signature may be difficult for all parties to understand, a digital signature requires encryption and complex verification services.
  • Hardware and software may become obsolete. This has necessitated a special archive service to be set up that verify that e-signed documents were validity signed.
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Advantages and disadvantages of digital signature

One of the best ways to secure information, digital signature have simplified secure communication between individuals, business, market, a government institution. At the very core of digital signature processing and verification are security, encryption, and the use of algorithms. Here this article gives the information about the advantages and disadvantages of digital signature to better understand this topic.

Advantages of digital signature:

  • A digital signature provides better security in the transaction. Any unauthorized person cannot do fraudulence in transactions.
  • You can easily track the status of the documents on which the digital signature is applied.
  • High speed up document delivery.
  • It is 100% legal it is issued by the government authorized certifying authority.
  • If you have signed a document digitally, then you cannot deny it.
  • In this signature, When a document is get signed, date and time are automatically stamped on it.
  • It is not possible to copy or change the document signed digitally.
  • Identification of the person that signs.
  • Elimination of the possibility of committing fraud by an imposter.

Disadvantages of digital signature:

  • You need to troubleshoot all the compatibility problems. In there are a lot of compatibility settings like an updated version of driver and software.
  • Software is one of the main issues while using a digital signature certificate.
  • If you are belonging to the corporate world and running an export-import organization, you need to produce a digital signature for E-ticketing. 
  • In this signature, Lost or theft of keys and the use of vulnerable storage facilities.
  • There is a stronger need for a standard through which these different methods can interact.
  • In this era of fast technological advancement, many of these tech products have a short shelf life.
  • In order to effectively use a digital signature, both senders and recipients may have to buy digital certificates.
  • To work with digital certificates, the sender and recipients have to buy verification software at a cost.
  • A digital signature involves the primary avenue for any business is money.
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Features of digital signature

One of the main key features of a digital signature provides is the highest level of security and acceptance available. You can also check out the main key difference between a digital signature and an electronic signature to better understand this topic.

The main key features of the digital signature are listed below:

  • All signatures are encrypted.
  • Accepted and enforceable in nearly any industry.
  • Signer authentication.
  • Data integrity.
  • While using the digital signature the sender can use the private key to sign the document.
  • It has long term retention and access to documents.
  • The signature is time-stamped when the document is signed and it becomes invalid if changed.
  • Non-repudiation means a sender cannot deny sending a message which has a digital signature.
  • An error-detecting code and verification feature used in the digital networks and it can storage devices to detect changes to raw data.
  • Global acceptance and legal compliance.
  • The recipient uses the public key to authenticate the document.
  • Perform mathematical calculations on the document and generate hash value unique to the message.
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Difference Between Digital Signature and Electronic Signature

The main key difference between the digital signature and electronic signature is that the digital signature is mainly used to secure documents and it is authorized by certification authorities while in an electronic signature is often associated with the contract where the signer has got the intention to do so. Here this article gives information about the main key difference between a digital signature and electronic signature to better understand this topic.

The main key difference between digital signature and electronics signature:

  • A digital signature is online, if any change is done in the document after the signature is applied, it will refer the signature as an invalid signature, While in electronic signature alternation can easily take place.
  • In digital signature encryption done by using a digital certificate is very secure, an electronic signature as not based on standard are inclined towards using a method based on proprietary aspects so are completely less secure.
  • A digital signature is authorized and regulated by certification authorities, while in electronic signature usually not authorized.
  • As a digital signature online is linked with the private key of an individual, it is unique and hard to deny, while in the verification of electronics signature is comparatively tough.
  • Digital signature has more security features, while in electronics signature has fewer security features.
  • Digital signatures can be verified, while in electronics signature cannot be verified.
  • As a digital signature is without fail time-stamped hence are useful in a court of law to link a person to the signature at a particular time and date, While in electronics signature data and time is associated with the electronic signature but as separately held, open to misuse.
  • Digital signature holding a length of multiple events, a digital signature can verify when any signature was applied, advanced digital signature products such as approve, send out notification in case if a long is altered. While in electronics signature audit long are not applied in an easy way.
  • A digital signature is based on adobe and Microsoft's main type, while in electronics signature includes verbal, electronics ticks, or scanned signatures. 
  • The digital certificates represent individual signatories by giving details of the individuals signing the documents, to say full name, email address, and company. While in electronic signature details of an individual placing an electronic signature is not held with the signature itself therefore are more prone to get tempered. 
  • Digital signature preferred more than electronic signature due to high levels of authenticity, while electronic signature easy to use but less authentic.
  • The digital signature was concerned about securing the documents while in electronic signature intent to sign the contract.

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Difference between UJT and BJT

The most significant difference between UJT and BJTis their applications, UJT can use as a switch in a circuit, and it has no application capabilities like BJT. While in BJT  can be used as either a switch or an amplifier. Here this article give the information about the main key difference between UJT and BJT to better understand this topic.

What is BJT?

A BJT stands for bipolar junction transistor is a three-layer, two junction NPN or PNP semiconductor device with one p-region sandwiched by two n-region, Its called NPN transistor. With two p-region sandwiched and one n-region, its called PNP transistor. 

What is UJT?

UJT stands uni-junction transistor, UJT has a three-terminal semiconductor switching device with only one junction that acts exclusively as an electronically controlled switch for use as a relaxation oscillator in the phase control applications.  

Difference between UJT and BJT:

  • UJT stands for unijunction transistor, while in BJT stands for bipolar junction transistor.
  • UJT is only one junction is present in BJT, while in BJT consist of two junctions. It is two junction transistors.
  • UJT is also known as double-base diode as contains two bases while in BJT contain three-terminal namely emitter, base, and collector.
  • UJT can be used as the voltage control device, But the BJT can be categorized as the current control device.
  • The conduction in this transistor is based on the flow of the majority of the carries through it, while in BJT the conduction in this transistor is completely based on the flow of both as majority and the minority carriers through it.
  • UJT can't be preferred for amplification, BJT can be used as amplifiers.
  • UJT is preferred for the switching application, While in BJT is based on the operating regions it can be preferred for amplification as well as suitable for the switching of the device.
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Application of UJT

UJT stand for unijunction transistor, it is most commonly used in high switching speed, Here this article gives the information about the application of UJT to better understand this topic.

Application of UJT:

  • The most application of the UJT  transistor is as a triggering device for SCR and TRIACS.
  • UJT applications include simple oscillators, phase control.
  • The simplest of all UJT circuits is the relaxation oscillator and it producing non-sinusoidal waveforms.
  • It is used as a voltage detector.
  • UJT is mainly used in phase control and timing circuits.
  • It is used in saw tooth generators.
  • It is used in oscillator circuit design.
  • UJT can also be used as to measure the magnetic flux.

Difference Between Electromagnet and Permanent Magnet

Electromagnets and permanent magnets are the two major types of materials that exhibit magnetic properties. However, the two are majority differentiated on the basis of the generation of the magnetic field. So the main key difference between electromagnet generates a magnetic field when an electric current is provided to it.

Definition of Electromagnet:

Electromagnets are the material that produces a magnetic field as a result of the flow of electric current. These are formed by winding a conductive wire around a soft metallic core.

Definition of Permanent magnet:

A permanent magnet is a hard magnetic material that is magnetized at the time of manufacturing thus its own magnetic field, These do not need external power as their magnetic properties are independent of any external excitation.

The main key difference between the electromagnet and permanent magnet:

  • Electromagnetic properties are magnetic properties that are displayed when current is passed through it, while magnetic properties exist when the material is magnetized.
  • The strength is adjusted depending upon the amount of flow of current, While the strength of permanent magnet depends upon the nature of the material used in its creation.
  • In electromagnetic removal of magnetic properties is temporary, while in a permanent magnet magnetic properties are lost, it becomes useless.
  • Electromagnetic is usually made of soft materials, while in permanent magnetic usually made of hard materials.
  • The polarity of the electromagnetic field can be reversed by changing the direction of current in its coil, While the permanent magnet the polarity of a permanent magnet is fixed and cannot be reversed.
  • Electromagnet requires a continuous supply of electricity to maintain its magnetic field, but in a permanent magnet doesn't require a continuous supply of electricity to maintain its magnetic field.
  • An electromagnet needs copper coupling thus need larger space while permanent magnets have a comparatively compact structure.
  • The poles of this kind of magnet can be altered with the flow of current, while in the pole of permanent magnet type of magnet cannot be changed.
  • The electromagnet can be easily demagnetized by switching off the current, while the permanent magnet can not be easily demagnetized.
  • The electromagnet can produce a very strong magnetic force, while the permanent magnet produce a comparatively weak force of attraction.
  • The cost of an electromagnet is low but permanent magnet are comparatively costlier than electromagnets.
  •  A solenoid winding across an iron core is an example of electromagnetic, while a permanent magnet the bar magnet is an example.
  • For an electromagnet, the strength of magnetic field changes according to the amount of current flowing through the material while in permanent magnet holds the magnetic filed permanently for a very long duration if the magnetic property gets lost then the material is useless.
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Difference Between Metals and Non-Metals

Metal and non-metal are the elements present around us. It is improtant to know whether a particular element is a metal or non-metal. The material can be divided metal or non-metal. Here this article give the information about the main key difference between metal and non-metal to better understand this topic.

What are the Metals?

Metals are the majority element in the periodic table are metals. This includes alkali metals, traditional metals, alkaline earth metals, and metal separated by non-metal on a periodic table through a zigzag line starting from carbon, till radon. The elements between the two are phosphorous, selenium, and iodine.

What are the non-metals?

Very few elements in the periodic tables are non-metals. These are present on the right-hand side in the periodic table. Elements that come under non-metals are sulfur, carbon, phosphorous, hydrogen, oxygen, selenium, nitrogen, and Nobel gases.

The main key difference between metals and non-metals:

  • Metal is generally found in solid-state but nonmetals exist in all the 3 states of matter.
  • Metal shows the property of malleability while nonmetals are nonmailable.
  • Metal is considered to be electropositive in nature due to their to donate electrons, while nonmetals are electronegative as they generally accept electrons.
  • The bond formed between metals is said to be metallic bonding, while the bond formed between two nonmetals is a covalent bond.
  • Metal is generally those substances that have a shiny surface and thus are lustrous, whereas nonmetal appearance and thus falls under the category of non-lustrous substance.
  • Metal holds the left side position on the periodic table while nonmetals are usually found on the right side in the periodic table.
  • Metal possesses high tensile strength as there exists strong attraction between molecules, however, due to weak intermolecular force, the tensile strength of non-metals is low.
  • Usually, metal is referred to as cations while non-metal as anions.
  • Metal is said to be good reducing agents, non-metals are referred to as a good oxidizing agent.
  • Metal posses very high density in comparison to non-metals.
  • All metals are lustrous, Non-metal are non-lustrous.
  • Metal exhibit high melting and boiling point except for mercury, as against the melting and boiling point of non-metals are generally low except carbon and silicon.
  • Metal shows the property of ductility as can be easily drawn into wires on applying force, while non-metals are not ductile but carbon is a non-metal that exhibits ductility.
  • All metal is solid at room temperature except mercury, which is liquid at room temperature, non-metal exists as solid, liquid, and gas, silicon is a solid, bromine is a liquid and oxygen is a gas.
  • Metals are malleable, while non-metals are non-malleable.
  • Metals have a high melting point, while non-metal are non-ductile.
  • Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity, while non-metals are poor conductors of heat and elctricity.
  • Metal have high densities expect lithium, sodium, and potassium, Non-metal have low density.

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Difference Between Leading and Lagging Power Factor

Leading and lagging power factors are the two major terms associated with the power factor of the alternating current (AC electrical system). The main key difference between the leading power factor is that in case of leading power factor the current leads the voltage.

The main key difference between leading and lagging power factor:

  • When the load of the linear electrical network is capacitive in nature then it generates a leading power factor, as against when the load is of inductive nature then it results in lagging power factor.
  • In the case of leading power factor, the phase angle of current is positive with respect to voltage, in the case of lagging power factor current phase angle is negative with respect to that of voltage.
  • In the case of the capacitive load, the load supplies reactive power. Thus the reactive component is negative as here the power is provided to it, but for inductive load, the load consumes reactive power, hence reactive component will be positive.
  • The value of leading power factor, with capacitive load range between -1 to 0, while for the lagging power factor with an inductive load, it lies between 0 and 1.
  • The key factor of differentiation between leading and lagging power factors is that the leading power factor is attained when the load current is in the leading position to that of the supply voltage. While lagging power factor shows that the current pages the voltage by some phase angle.
  • As the power factor is a crucial parameter of ca electrical circuits thus correction is quite necessary if the power factor is quite low. Thus a leading power factor is corrected by the addition of inductive loads, whereas the correction in the lagging power factor is done by adding capacitive loads.
  • Example of leading power factor of capacitive load, include radio circuit, electric motor, power supplies, etc. While in lagging power factor common examples of inductive load are propulsion, inductive motor, power generator, and relay, etc.

Difference Between Electron and Proton

The main key difference between electron and proton is that electron is the automatic particle having a negative charge and orbiting the nucleus, the flow of electron in a conductor constitutes electricity while in the proton is positively charged subatomic particle forming part of the nucleus of an atom and determining the atomic number of an element. Here this article gives information about the main key difference between electron and proton to better understand this topic.

Definition of the proton?

Proton is a subatomic particle in the nucleus of the atom and has a positive change. We generally denote in proton by p. When scientists discovered the electron, they had no idea about a particle called a proton.

Definition of Proton?

The electron in an orbital exists as a pair of electrons. Each pair has two electrons with opposite spin. The arrangement of an electron in an orbital can be given in an electron configuration.

Difference between electron and proton:

  • Electrons are present outside the nucleus of an atom, while protons are present in the nucleus of an atom.
  • A proton is represented as "P", An electron is represented as "e".
  • Electron is negatively charged, proto are positively charged.
  • The mass of an electron e is considered to be negligible,  but the mass of a proton  p is approximately 1840 times as the mass of an electron. 
  • The electron has spread the nucleus, while the proton are closely bound.
  • The mass of an electron is about 1/2000 times the mass of a hydrogen atom, while the mass of the proton is taken as one unit and equal to the mass of a neutron.
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Difference Between Real Image and Virtual Image

Real image and virtual image are two classifications of the image that is formed by reflection or refraction of light rays. The main key difference between the real image and a virtual image is that the real images are formed when light rays actually meet at a point after getting reflected or refracted from a mirror. Here this article gives information about the main key difference between the real image and virtual image to better understand this topic.

Definition of real image:

The real image is the type of image that is formed due to the convergence of light rays at a point after being reflected or refracted from a mirror or lens. Real images are formed at the point where light rays undergo interaction with each other. 

Definition of virtual image:

Virtual images are that only appear to be formed at a position behind a mirror. In actuality, the image is not present there. Unlike the real images, a virtual image is formed when reflected or refracted rays get diverged.

The main key difference between the real image and virtual image:

  • Real images are formed when light rays after reflection or refraction converge at a point before a mirror or lens. While a virtual image is formed when the light rays diverge after reflection or refraction.
  • Real images appear on the screen as against virtual images never appear on the screen.
  • Real images are inverted in nature while the virtual image appears erect.
  • Real images are formed due to the actual interaction of real rays, virtual images are formed when light rays imaginarily interact with each other.
  • The front of the mirror forms real images, whereas virtual images are assumed to be formed behind the mirror.
  • Generally, a concave mirror or convex lenses form a real image, plane mirror, convex mirror, and concave lens are regarded as the virtual image forming surfaces.
  • Converging types of lenses are used to produce a real image, whereas a diverging lens is used for the formation of virtual images.
  • In the case of the real image, the light rays diverge from the same side of the mirror after converging and forming the real image, while in the virtual image, the light rays assumed to diverge from a point somewhere behind the mirror.
  • Real image used in a cinema screen, virtual image used in the plane.
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Difference Between Reflection and Refraction

The phenomenon of reflection and reflection from the discussion can be inferred in a way that reflection permits therapy to propagate in the same direction even after striking the surface, While the refraction contradicts this behavior of light and the ray propagate in a different medium.

Definition of reflection:

Refection is defined as the change in direction of light rays due to bouncing back towards the same medium after striking the boundary of different mediums.

Definition of refraction:

Refraction is defined as the bending of light rays because of experiencing the difference in the refractive index of the medium. More simply we can say when light strike the boundary of the medium that has different refractive index then, the ray changes its direction, bends and starts propagating in the medium of different refractive index.

The main key difference between reflection and refraction:

  • Refection generally occurs in shinny surfaces that allow rebounding of light without permitting penetration through it. While refraction occurs in transparent surface that allows bending of the ray to a different medium.
  • Refection states that the incident angle and reflection angle are equal to each other, while the law of refraction states that the ratio of the sine of an incident angle to the sine of the refraction angle is a constant value.
  • Refection generally takes place in mirrors, whereas refraction take place in lenses in general conditions.
  • In the case of reflection, the medium in which light propagates remains the same, whereas, in refraction, the medium of propagating gets changed.
  • When a light ray strikes the boundary of a different medium then in case of reflection the speed of the light ray does not vary. While in the case of refraction, the speed varies with the medium in which the ray undergoes bending.
  • The angle of incidence of the light is equal to the angle of reflection, the angle of incidence is not equal to the angle of reflection.
  • The light entering the medium return back in the same direction for reflection, while in the light entering the medium travel, while the light entering the medium travel from one medium to another.
  • Considering the light wave, they bounce from the place and change direction, while in reflection the light wave pass through the surface while simultaneously change from medium to medium.

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Difference Between Scalar and Vector Quantity

Scalar and vector are two major classifications of quantity. The crucial difference between scalar and vector quantity is that scalar quantity is the one that is simply associated with the magnitude of any quantity, while in against a physical quantity that considers both magnitudes as well as direction, it is termed as a vector quantity.

Scalar quantity:

A scalar quantity is referred to as the quantity, which has only magnitude and no direction. Every scalar quantity is one dimensional.

Vector quantity:

Vector quantity implies the physical quantity which comprises both magnitude as well as and direction. Vector quantity can be one dimensional, two dimensional, or three dimensional.

Difference between scalar and vector quantity:

  • Scalar has only magnitude, the vector has direction and magnitude.
  • Scalar has only one dimensional, the vector has a multidimensional.
  • Scalar has quantity change with the change in magnitude, while in vector change with magnitude and direction.
  • One scalar quantity can divide another scalar quantity, while one vector cannot divide another vector.
  • Scalar is normal rules of algebra are applicable here, there is a different set of rules known as vector algebra.
  • An example of speed, time, length, mass, energy the distance between the point is a scalar quantity, not the direction, weight, force-velocity could be an example of the rate of change of an object's position.
  • Scalar quantity cannot be resolved as it has the exact same value regardless of direction, vector quantity can be resolved in any direction using the sine or cosine of the adjacent angle.
  • Any image in a scalar quantity is the reflection of a change in magnitude, while any change in a vector quantity can reflect either change in direction or change in the magnitude of change in both.
  • Any mathematical operation carried out among two or more scalar quantities will provide the scalar only. however, if a scalar is operated with a vector then the result will be a vector. But in the result of a mathematical operation between two or more vectors may give either scalar or vector. For example dot product of two vectors gives only scalar, while the cross product or summation or subtraction between two vectors result in a vector.

The similarity between scalar and vector quantity:

  • Both the scalar quantity and vector quantity express certain physical quantities.
  • Both scalar quantities and vector quantities are measurable and quantifiable.
  • Both scalar quantities and vector quantities have a certain finite magnitude.
  • Both scalar quantities and vector quantities have specific dimensions and units.

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