Advantages and disadvantages of permanent magnet synchronous motor

 A permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is a device designed by using permanent magnets embedded in the steel rotor to create a constant magnetic field. This type of motor one of the best choice for a full range of motion control application. So here this article gives the Permanent magnet synchronous motor advantages and disadvantages to netter understand this topic. 

Advantages of the permanent magnet DC motor:

  • Permanent magnets are smaller in size.
  • These motors do not require any field of windings, and they do not have field circuit copper losses. This increases their efficiency.
  • For smaller rating permanent magnet which reduces the manufacturing cost and thus the PMDC motor is cheaper.
  • This motor has a low torque ripple so it can generate constant torque. Also, its ability to maintain full torque at very low speeds.
  • It has only stator winding and no rushes so its heat generation is low compared with a brush motor.
  • Do not need an extra DC power source for it. The AC supply is provided on the stator and it is the permanent magnets are on the rotor.
  • Permet magnet motor full-load efficiency is higher than the use of an AC induction motor.
  • The permanent magnet synchronous motor has not any brushes so it has a low maintenance cost.

Disadvantages of permanent magnet synchronous motor:

  • There is a  risk of demagnetization of the poles which may be caused by a large armature current.  Demagetizatiob cab also occurs due to excessive heating and also when the motor is an overload for a long period of time.
  • Extra ampere Cannot be added to reduce the armature reaction.
  • The magnetic field of the PMDC motor is preset at all times, even when the motor is not being used.
  • The permanent magnet produces a high flux density as that an externally supplied shunt field does. Therefore, a PMDC motor has lower induced torque per ampere-turns of armature current the shunt than a shunt motor of the same rating.
  • Permanent magnet motor solutions tend to need a higher initial cost than the use of AC induction motors so more difficult to starts up than AC induction motors.
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Asynchronous transmission advantages and disadvantages

Asynchronous transmission is the transmission of data in the unit of character synchronization signals in the form of nits. The transmitter and the receiver have independent clocks, and neither side provides a clock synchronization signal to the other side. So here let us discuss the advantages and disadvantages of asynchronous transmission to better understand this topic.  

Advantages of Asynchronous transmission:

  • Its characteristics are self-oriented.
  • The blocking is not necessary. so the resource may be feed.
  • The request does not require targeting a particular server.
  • Transmitting and receiving clock is not dependent on the counterpart.
  • Transmitter and receivers do not need synchronization.
  • The request does not require targeting a particular server.
  • Availability of the server does not mandatory required when a request is generated.
  • A connectionless protocol may be used for such a transmission.
Disadvantages of Asynchronous transmission:
  • Start and stop bit are overheating.
  • Handling of errors is more intricate.
  • Response time cannot be predicted.
  • It has a lower transmission rate.
  • The timing error may take place cause it is difficult to determine synchronicity.
  • noise is signal may lead to false recognition of start and stop bit.
  • Application is comparatively hard to design for such a transmission. 
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Types of Synchronous Motor

Depending upon the method of magnetization of the rotor, there are basically two types of synchronous motors:

Types of synchronous motor:

  1. non-excited
  2. Direct current excited

Let us discuss one by one

  1. non-excited

In this motor, the rotor these motor is constructed y steel. During its rotation at synchronous speed, it follows the synchronous rotating field in different steps, due to this it provides constant fields. 

Due to the field interaction of the stator with the rotor, it becomes an electromagnet and it has north and south poles that interact with stator field poles in this way rotor moves.

The rotor is made from such that has a high value for magnetization and demagnetization means it retentively is high.

It's again divided into three main  parts:
  • Reluctance motors
  • Hysteresis motors
  • Permanent magnet motors
In the reluctance motor, the rotor is made up of steel casting with the use of the projecting tooted poles. To minimize the torque ripples, the rotor poles are less than the stator poles. It contains squirrel-cage winding which is to provide starting torque to the rotor. Used in instrumentation applications.

Hysteresis motors are seld starting motor. This rotor is a smooth cylinder is made up of with the high coercivity magnetically hard cobalt steel. These motors are expensive and It is used where precise constant speed is required. It is generally used as servomotors.

In a permanent magnet synchronous motor, a permanent magnet is used along with steel for rotor design. They have a constant magnetic field in the rotor, so the induction motor winding cannot be used for starting time. It is used as gearless elevator motors.

         2. Direct current excited

The rating of DC motor is larger than one HP or one KW. The external direct current source is connected with the rotor of these motors for excitation.  This Dc source is connected with the motor by a rectifier circuit for rectification of supply.

The direct current at the rotor can is provided in two ways first one is by connecting ab external source and the second is by attaching a direct current generator with the shaft of the rotor.

  • Explore more information:

  1. Working principle of synchronous motor
  2. Why induction motor widely used in industry
  3. Difference between synchronous ad asynchronous motor
  4. Difference between induction motor ad synchronous motor

Synchronous motor

As an electrical, the electrical motor is an electro-mechanical device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.  

What is a synchronous motor?

The definition of the synchronous motor states that, An AC motor in which at steady state, rotation of the shaft is in sync with the frequency of the applied current. The synchronous motor works as an AC motor but here the total number of rotation made by the shaft is equal to the interference multiple of the frequency of the applied current.

Working principle of synchronous motor

  • The synchronous motor will work on the basic principle of magnetic locking.
  • When two unlike strong unlike magnets poles are brought together in the motor. There exists a tremendous force of extraction between those two poles. In such a condition, the two magnets said to be magnetically locked. 
  • The stator and the rotor are two main parts of the synchronous motor. The stator is the stationary part of the motor while the rotor is their rotating part. The stator excited by the three-phase supply, and the rotor is excited by the DC supply. 
  • The term excitation means the magnetic field induces in the stator and rotor both of the motor. The main aim of the excitation is to convert the stator and rotor both into an electromagnet.

The three-phase supply induces both the north and south pole on the stator. The three-phase supply is sinusoidal. The polarity of their wave changes after every half cycle and because of this reason the north and south pole also varies. Thus the rotating magnetic filed develop on the stator.

The magnetic field develops on the rotor because of we have to apply DC supply. The polarity of the DC supply becomes fixed and no change in polarity, and thus the stationary magnetic field develops on the rotor. The term stationary means their north and south pole remain fixed.

Synchronous Motor
 Synchronous Motor

The speed at which the rotating magnetic field that rotates is known as the synchronous speed. The synchronous speed of the motor  N depends on the frequency of f the supply and the number of poles of P  the motor. 

Nₛ =  120f/P

f =  The supply frequency in Hz
P = The number of poles
N = synchronous speed in RPM

When the opposite pole of the stator and rotor face with each other, the force of attraction occurs between them. The attraction force develops the torque in the clockwise direction. The torque is the kind of force that moves the object in the rotation. Thus the poles of the rotor dragged towards the pole of the stator.

After every half cycle, the pole on the stator is reversed direction. The position of the rotor will remain the same because of some inertia. The inertia is the tendency of an object to remain fixed in one direction. When the pole of the stator and rotary face each other, the force of repulsion occurs between them and the torque develops in the clockwise direction.

Main features of synchronous motor:

  • Synchronous motor is inherently not self-starting. They require some external means to bring their speed close to synchronous speed before they are synchronized.
  • In constant supply frequency, they behave as constant speed motor irrespective of load condition.
  • This motor has the unique characteristics of operating under any electrical power factor. This makes it is used in electrical power factor improvement.
Application of synchronous motor:

  • Power factor correction 
  • Reciprocating pump
  • rolling mills
  • Voltage regulation
  • Constant speed
  • Constant load drives.

LM338 pinout | Introduction | Configuration | Features | Packages | Advantages | Application

As we know that there are available in various forms of 555 timers, single logic gates, microcontroller, microprocessor, voltage regulator and op-amps like different ICs IC  LM741, LM324 IC, LM339 IC, LM358, and many more ICs are available. Here we have to learn or introduce about  IC LM358 because it has low power and easy to use dual channel op-amp IC. This IC is designed especially to operate from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages. It is a good, standard operational amplifier and the most important point for this IC is suitable for your needs. LM358 IC is available in a small size as a chip. This IC is the most commonly used device due to its cost-efficiency. Let us have a deep insight into the introduction, pinout, configuration, features, packages, advantages, applications of LM358.

Introduction to LM338 Pinout:


LM338 is the adjustable DC power supply circuit, 1.2 V to 30 V. It ca e provide a current maximum to 5A ad 10 A. If you have used LM317 or LM350. There is similar and so easy to use with a few components. ut LM338 has a higher current than LM317.

Pin out LM338:


The LM338 are adjustable 3 terminal positive voltage regulators capable of supplying in excess of 5A over 1.2V to 32V output range.




They are exceptionally easy to use ad require only 2 resistors to set the output voltage.

The careful circuit design has resulted in outstanding load and line regulation comparable to many commercial power supplies. 

Features of LM338:

  • 5A output current.
  • 7A maximum output current.
  • Adjustable output 1.2V to 37V.
  • Line regulation typically 0.1%.
  • Thermal regulation.
  • Line regulation typically 0.005%/V.
  • The current limit is constant with temperature.
  • P+ product enhancement tested.
  • Output in short circuit protected.
  • The current limit is constant with temperature.
Applications:
  • Adjustable power supply
  • Constant current regulator
  • Battery charger
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Difference Between Potentiometer and Voltmeter

The potentiometer ad the voltmeter both are the voltage measuring device. The main key difference is that the potentiometer measures the emf of the circuit while the voltmeter measures the end terminal voltage of the circuit device. so here this article gives the main key difference between potentiometer and voltmeter to better understand this topic.

What is potentiometer?

The potentiometer is the three-terminal devices used for measuring the unknown voltage source by comparing it with the known voltage. The standard source supplies the known voltage.

What is a voltmeter?

As we know, The voltmeter measures the voltages between any two points of an electrical circuit. The voltmeter has high iteral resistance because of which the meter draws a small current.

Difference between potentiometer and voltmeter:  

  • The sensitivity of the potentiometer is very high. It can measure a small potential difference between the two points. The voltmeter has low sensitivity.
  • The potentiometer is an instrument used for measuring the mainly of an emf, whereas the voltmeter is a type of meter which measures the terminal's voltage of the circuit.
  • The potentiometer uses the null deflection type instrument but the voltmeter uses the deflection type instrument.
  • The potentiometer has infinite iteral resistance, whereas the potentiometer has high measurable resistance.
  • The potentiometer accurately measures the potential difference because of it zero internal resistance. while the voltmeter has high iteral resistance which causes the error measurement. thus the voltmeter approximately measures the voltage.
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Difference between primary and secondary cell

battery or cell are referred to as the parallel combination of electrochemical cells. The major key difference between primary ad secondary cells is that primary cells are the ones that can not be charged but secondary cells are the ones that are rechargeable. So here this article gives the main key difference between primary cell ad secondary cells to better understand this topic.

What is the primary cell?

The primary cell has high-density ad get discharged slowly. Since there is no fluid inside these cells that they are also known as dry cells. The internal resistance is high also the chemical reaction is irreversible. It is the initial cost is cheap and also primary cells are easy to use.

What is a secondary cell?

Secondary cells have low energy density and also they are made of molten salts and wet cells. The internal resistance is low and its chemical reaction is reversible. It is initial to cost is high and is a little complicated to use when compared to the primary cell.

Difference between primary and secondary cell:

  • The primary cell has high energy ad slow in discharge and easy to use, while in secondary cells is a smaller energy density.
  • The primary cell has a high internal resistance, the secondary cell has low internal resistance.
  • Primary cells are no fluids in the cells hence it is also cadry cells, while a secondary cell is made up of wet cells ad molten salt.
  • The primary cell has an irreversible chemical reaction, while secondary cells have a reversible chemical reaction.
  • Primary cell design is smaller and lighter, while secondary cell design is more complex and heavier.
  • Primary cell initial cost is cheap, but in secondary cell initial cost is high.

SFU full form

 What is the SFU full form in electrical?

Answer:

  • Switch Fuse Unit

What does SFU mean?

SFU has one switch unit and also it has one fuse unit. When we operate the breaker, the contacts will get closed through a switch, and then the supply will pass through the fuse unit to the output.  

Difference Between Capacitor and Battery

 The attery ad capacitor has similarities, there are several key differences. The potential energy is stored in the electric field while using the capacitor, while the potential energy is stored in the form of chemical energy which is later coveted to electric energy. So here this article gives the main key difference between capacitor ad attery to better understand this topic.

Definition of battery

The battery is a device that consists of two or more units of an electrochemical cell. The positive thermal of the attery is known as the cathode whereas the negative terminal of the battery is known as the anode. The battery is the two types called as the primary battery, and the secondary battery.

Definition of capacitor 

A capacitor consists of two metallic plates or it is a conductor which are separated by a dielectric medium. An electric field set up because of the potential difference between the two conductors or we can say between that they are two plates.

Difference between capacitor and battery:

  • The potential energy is stored in the electric field while using the capacitor, while the potential energy is stored in the form of chemical energy which is later coveted to electric energy.
  • The capacitor is the passive component of a circuit, while the battery is an active component of a circuit.
  • The capacitor has a lower energy density than a battery, while the battery has a better energy density than a capacitor.
  • The voltage decreases rapidly while discharging, while attery provides a constant voltage.
  • The capacitor has a higher cost, while the battery has comparatively cheaper than a capacitor.
  • The capacitor has discharges instantaneously, while the battery runs for a longer time.
  • A capacitor is composed of thin sheet metals held close together or separated by an insulator, while the battery composed of metals and chemicals.
  • Capacitor charging and discharging rates are faster than a battery because it stores energy directly on the plates. While charging the discharging rates comparatively slower because of the conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy. 

Difference between Generator and Inverter

 The difference between generator ad inverter is discussed here o the basis of various factor like their period of starting, voltage, noise ad pollution, source of power, starting, capacities ad their installation, duration of a power outage, backup power supply, fuel storage, maintenance, size ad weight of the machine, space requirement, maximum power output, parallel operation ad their cost. So here this article gives the main key difference between generator ad invertor to better understand this topic.

What is a generator?

A generator is an electrical machine that converts mechanical energy into electricity. It provides electricity to homes, offices, industries, etc. When there is o power supply. The generator uses coal, natural gases, oil as a source of power supply. Hence it is maintenance becomes a problem, ut one of it advantages is that it can operate for a longer duration of time.

What is an inverter?

The inverter is a device that converts direct current available in the form of the battery to alternating current. The battery should be charged regularly or it should be always on the On connection, so that it automatically, charge itself. It needs wiring to connect the equipment which one needs to run at the time of power cut so that the equipment is starts automatically.

Difference between generator and inverter:

  • Generator directly produces 120 volts, at 60 hertz supply frequency, while the inverter converts 12 volts into 120 volts AC power.
  • The generator takes considerable time to start when there is a power outage, while the invertor restores power supply immediately and takes no time to start as soon as power is cut off.
  • A generator requires effort to start, while an invertor starts on their own.
  • The generator makes noise and also produce smoke, the invertor is soundless and pollution-free.
  • Generators require power sources like kerosene, diesel, natural gases, or petroleum to run, while in invertor work on battery and thus charges it battery with electricity itself.
  • The generator is at advantages where there is a long power outage, while in invertor convenient to the place where there is a short power outage.
  •  The generator is available in high capacities, while invertors available in low capacities.
  • The generator has no backup is required, invertor needs a backup of generators for the place where power cut is of long duration.
  • The generator is started from the setup already installed or established, while in invertor required installation and wiring system.
  • A generator requires the storage of fuels, while in an invertor is no requirement of storage of fuel.
  • In generator no backup is required, the inverter needs a backup of a generator for the places where power cut is of long duration.
  • A generator requires much space and is kept outside the home or office, while in invertor require less space and is kept inside the home or office.
  • The engine of the generator requires maintenance at regular interval of time, while in invertor requires almost no maintenance.
  • Parrell options do not in the generator, while in invertor can be linked to another identical unit of double the power capacity.
  • Generator price is less as compared to the invertor, while the cost of the inverter is high.
  • Generators vary greatly in their size and shape and they are also heavy in weight, but in invertors are compact in size and they are light in weight, and are portable.
  • Generators vary greatly in their rated wattage from 500 to 50000 W or more, the inverter is available in 1000 to 40000 W.
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Difference Between Kinetics and Kinematics

In physics science, to deal with the motion of the object to terms are frequently used. Kinetics ad kinematics are two areas of study. Both are dealing with the motion of an object, but still there are some differences between them. The main difference is having a base on the cause of the motion. So here this article gives the main key difference between kinetics and kinematics to better understand this topic.

What is kinetics?

Kinetics explains how a body responds when the force or torque is applied to it. This is the branch of physics, which deals specifically with analyzing the forces acting on an object.

What is kinematics?

Kinetics describes the motion of the bodies. It deal with finding out velocities or acceleration for various objects. Kinematics is the branch of physics that deals with motion using mathematical descriptions like a set of equations of motion.

Difference between  kinetics and kinematics:

  • Kinetics is a deal with the causes for the motion of the object, while the kinematics with the position, acceleration, and the speed of an object.
  • Kinetics takes into consideration the mass of the object, while in kinematics doesn't take into consideration the mass of the object.
  • Kinetics takes force explicitly into account, while kinematics doesn't take forces explicitly into account.
  • Kinetics treated in terms of energy transformation, while in kinematics treated in geometrically.
  • Kinetics is the study of motion caused by force, gravity, friction, and torque, while in kinematics determine how to move.
  • Kinetic get an attempt to causes, while in kinematics is disruptive and based on the observation.
  • Kinetics is a partial application that can be found in the designing of automobiles, while kinematics can be found in the study of the movement of celestial bodies.
  • Kinetics does not have more mathematical expression, while kinematics has more mathematical expression.
  • Kinetic is an attempt to determine the relationship between the motion of bodies causes by internal force and the mass of bodies, while in kinematics is about simply describing motion, such as velocity, time, displacement, acceleration.
  • Kinetics is also known as a dynamic, while in kinematics is called with the same name.
  • Kinetics used in various branches of science such as biology, chemistry, and physics, while kinematics used in physics, mechanics in terms of engineering. 
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Difference Between Cell and Battery

As we know, the cell and battery both are to store the chemical energy and then transform the stored chemical energy into the electrical energy. So here this article gives the main key difference between cell and battery to better understand this topic.

Definition cell

The cell is a single power generating unit that stores the chemical energy and then converts it into electrical energy. It has two electrodes name called as the cathode and the anode. The cell has an electrolyte, a chemical substance that reacts with the electrodes and produces an electric current.

Definition of battery

The battery is a device that consists of two or more units of an electrochemical cell. The positive thermal of the attery is known as the cathode whereas the negative terminal of the battery is known as the anode. The battery is the two types the primary battery, and the secondary battery.

Difference between cell and battery:

  • The cell is a single device that covert the electric energy into chemical energy, while the battery is the group of the cell.
  • The cell is cheap as compared to the battery, While battery cost is high.
  • A cell can be a battery but the battery can not be a cell.
  • The cell supply power for short time, while the battery supply power for long durations.
  • The cell is either dry, some wet, reserve, and fuel types depend on which types of electrolytes used, while the battery is either non-chargeable or rechargeable.
  • The cell is mostly used in the clock, lamp, etc, which requires less energy, whereas the battery is mostly used in automobiles, inverter, etc.
  • The cell has a single unit hence, it is light and compact, whereas the battery is a combination of cells that increase the size of the battery and make it is bulky.
  • The galvanic cell, daniel cell, Blanche cell are some of the examples of the cell while the lead-acid battery, lithium-ion battery, magnesium ion battery, etc are the type of battery. 

Difference between wifi and mifi

WiFi provides wireless connectivity to devices using fixed hotspots. Therefore is the essence, it is a technology While in MiFi is a device, it is a mobile hotspot device that provides connectivity to another device on the go via a process called tethering. So here this article gives the main key difference between  WiFi and MiFi to understand this topic.

Definition of WiFi

WiFI is essential to the wireless networking standard that connects various devices together without the actual use of wires. If your device is WiFI enabled or is WiFI compatible, then it can communicate wifi device wirelessly, Your smartphone allows you to connect to a mobile hotspot via a wifi chip located within. This is also possible with the laptop, hotspot, or any other device which is WiFI enabled.

Definition of MiFi

MiFi is a brand coined by Novatel wireless and its name is given to novel portable devices that provide a mobile WiFi connection. However, the name of MiFi is being used as a generic term for any device that can work as a Wifi hotspot. MiFi lets multiple mobile devices and users create an Adhoc network by sharing a 3G or 4G mobile broadband internet connection.

Difference between  WiFi and MiFi:

  • Wifi can be referred to as the wireless standard. It regards a device there is wifi router as well, while in Mifi can be referred to as the wifi and modem.
  • Wifi is standard and used 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz frequency radio signal in order to establish to connection, while in Mifi device are able to support mobile data technologies 3G, 4G LTE.
  • WiFi standards is used to create wifi hotspot, while in Mifi standard are used to create a mobile hotspot.
  • Wifi standard does not support mobile connectivity, Mifi device supports mobile connectivity.

Difference between ethernet and wifi

As we know that the ethernet primarily refers to a physical cable over which the data travels whereas WiFi refers to a network of interconnected device that is connected wirelessly. So here this article gives the main key difference between Wifi and ethernet to better understand this topic.

 Definition of WiFi

WiFi stands for wireless fidelity, it is a small network smartphone, computers, or other networkable devices is connected to each other wirelessly within a small range and share internet using hotspot. WiFi uses radiofrequency waves for wireless highspeed internet and network connection.

Definition of Ethernet

Ethernet is a widely used for local area network called LAN standard, It is defined under IEEE 802.3 standards. It is very easy to understand, implement, and maintain and low-cost implementation. It generally uses bus topology but the other topologies can also be used. It is part of the physical and also for the data layer of the OSI model.

Difference between WiFi and Ethernet:

  • Wifi is a wireless network to connect the nearby device to each other and share the internet via hotspots. While there is a LAN network standard used in wired LAN. 
  • WiFi is based on IEEE 802.11x specifications where x is WiFi versions, Ethernet is based on IEEE 802.3 specifications.
  • WIfi is highly flexible, ethernet is not flexible.
  • Wifi installation deployment is easy, ethernet installation is difficult and time-consuming.
  • In wifi device can be connected without wires, without ports, ethernet is wired and hence no mobility.
  • WiFi is less efficient and has latency in network connections, ethernet is more efficient and provide more speed.
  • WiFi data is encrypted during transfer, While in ethernet data is not required to be encrypted during transfer.
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Difference between RAM and HDD

 RAM and HDD both are the types of computer memory, RAM is used to store computer programs and data that CPU needs in real-time. RAM data is volatile and is erased once the computer is switched off. HDD has permanent storage and it is used to store user-specific data and operating systems files.

Definition of RAM

RAM stands for random access memory, it is used to store the program and the data being used by the CPU in real-time. The data on the RAM can be read, written, and erased any number of times. RAM is a hardware element where it to be the data being currently used is stored. It is volatile memory.

Definition of HDD

HDD stands for a hard disk drive, It is called secondary memory. HDD memory is very high. It ranges from 500 GB to 4 TB on the desktop. HDD used for storing digital information rapidly rotating disk coated with magnetic materials.

Difference between RAM and HDD:

  • RAM stands for random access memory, while the HDD stands for a hard disk drive.
  • RAM also called primary memory or main memory, while HDD is called secondary memory.
  • CPU can access data stored on RAM, while in Data to be copied from ROM to RAM so that CPU can access its data.
  • RAM has no moving mechanical part and consists of transistor etc, while in HDD contains moving mechanical parts like arms, pins, etc.
  • RAM is costly per unit storage, HDD is cheap per unit storage.
  • Every memory area of RAM is accessible, while in a different area of HDD may take different time to access.
  • RAM has a small read/write, HDD has a higher read/write time.
  • RAM doesn't produce any noise, While the HDD produces noise due to mechanical movements.
  • RAM memory is generally smaller than the HDD. nowadays its rages from 1 GB to 8 GB on desktop, HDD memory is very high. It ranges from 500 GB to 4 TB on the desktop.
  • If RAM is low, the computer will become slow, HDD has not much impact on computer speed.
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Advantages and disadvantages of personal area network

PAN  stands for personal are networks, which is the interconnection between different devices like smartphones, tablets ad computers ad other digital devices. PAN  is used for personal purposes like data sharing among devices and it has a range of 10 meters. Some types of personal area networks are wired like the USB while others are wireless Bluetooth. Wireless personal area network is also known as the WPAN. So here this article gives the main key advantages ad disadvantages of PAN to better understand this topic.

Advantages of personal area network:

  • In PAN no extra space requires.
  • No need for extra cable and wire.
  • It used in the TV remote, AC remotes, etc.
  • It is reliable.
  • It is secure.
  • Connect to any devices at a time.
  • It is easy to use.
  • Data can be synchronized between different devices.
  • It is used in offices, conferences, and meetings.
  • No extra space requires.
  • Affordable cost.
  • It is portable.

Disadvantages of personal area network:

  • It can be operated in less range of areas.
  • It is a slow data transfer.
  • It interfaces with radio signals.
  • PAN has a limited range.
  • Devices are not compatible with each other.
  • Infrared signal travel only in a straight line.
  • It can only be used for the personal area.
  • The device with inbuilt WPAN is more expensive.
  • PAN uses microwave signals in some digital devices which have and effect on the human body like rain and heart problems may occur.
  • TV remote use infrared signals which have a problem that they travel in a straight line. So this count other disadvantages of PAN.

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Difference between LAN ad PAN

The main difference between PAN and LAN is that the former tens to be centred around one person while in the LAN that is connected without wires and serving multiple users. So here this article gives the main key difference between LAN and PAN to better understand this topic.

Definition of LAN

LAN stands for the local area network, which comprised of the shared transmission medium, hardware, and software in order to communicate and handle the ordering access of the medium. The main purpose of LAN is to be able to exchange information and it is share resources.

Definition of PAN

PAN stands for a personal area network. It is sometimes referred to as a wireless personal area network. It is a network covering a very small area, typically a small room. It enables computing devices to communicate with other nearby computers and exchange information and data.

Difference between LAN ad PAN:

  • PAN  is a network covering a very small area, typically a small room. It eales computer devices to communicate with other nearby computers and exchange information and data, while in LAN the network contact computer over a small distance such as within a building or a single computer la consisting of may computers. 
  • PAN supports 250 kps in ZigBee, from kbps to 24 Mbps in Bluetooth case. LAN support 10,100, & 1000 Mbps while WLAN supports 54 Mbps as per (802.11a)and above 100 Mbps  as per (802.11n/11c/11ad).
  • PAN used for low data rate and short-distance applications, while in LAN is mainly used for wireless LAN and LAN where data transfer at high speed is desired.
  • PAN is mainly used for low data rate applications in home automation, Bluetooth is used for data transfer between devices, while LAN is designed for high data transfer from Mbps to Gbps.
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Difference between LAN and VLAN

VLAN is the extension of LAN where the capabilities of typical LAN is enhanced by logically segmenting the LAN into multiple broadcast domain. So here this article gives the main key difference between LAN and VLAN to better understand this topic.

Definition of LAN

LAN stands for the local area network, which comprised of the shared transmission medium, hardware, and software in order to communicate and handle the ordering access of the medium. The main purpose of LAN to be able to exchange information and share resources.

Definition of VLAN

VLAN stands for a virtual local area network, it is a logical separation of the LAN where multiple LAN segments are created within a single bandwidth. The specialty of VLAN is that the LAN segments constructed in the LAN can be spanned and contracted according to the requirement.

Difference between LAN and VLAN:

  • LAN stands for local area network, while in VLAN stand for virtual local area network.
  • The cost of the local area network is high, while the cost of a virtual local area network is less.
  • In LAN, the packet is advertised to each device, while in VLAN, the packet is sent to a specific broadcast domain.
  • LAN is the latency of the local network is high, while the latency of the virtual local area network is low.
  • LAN is less efficient than a virtual local area network, while VLAN is greater efficient than a local area network.
  • The device which is used in LAN is the hub, routers, and switch, while the device which is used in VLAN is: bridges and switch.
  • LAN is not secure enough and security measures are only taken at the routers end, while VLAN improves security by limiting the broadcast domain.
  • In LAN standard Ethernet protocols such as token ring and FDDI, While in VLAN standard protocol including ISP and VTP. 
  • In LAN packet broadcast to each device, while in send packet to the specific broadcast domain.
  • LAN performance is average as compared to VLAN which offer more efficiency, VLAN can easily troubleshoot, managed as it uses special technology for doing so.
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Difference Between Ethernet and LAN

 Ethernet is an open standard for managing the network, it also considered as the chief set of standards for the physical characteristics of LAN. The major key difference between LAN and ethernet is the network size, transmission technology, and the topology where the LAN can be scaled to a higher extent, and the ethernet network is smaller. So here this article gives the main key difference between ethernet and LAN to better understand this topic.

Definition of LAN:

LAN stands for the local area network, which comprised of the shared transmission medium, hardware, and software in order to communicate and handle the ordering access of the medium. The main purpose of LAN to be able to exchange information and share resources.

Definition of Ethernet:

Ethernet is another given the prevalent packet switched LAN technology, It was developed as an experimental coaxial cable network by xerox corporation. At that time the ethernet was operated at a rate of 3 Mbps with the help of carrier sense multiple access collision detection protocol for LAN with the irregular traffic needs.

Difference between ethernet and LAN:

  • Ethernet is the second name given the prevalent packet switched LAN technology, while in LAN stand for local area network.
  • Ethernet is a basic technology for establishing a network while in LAN is a private network bigger in scale comparative to ethernet and more reliable.
  • A LAN is centrally controlled but the ethernet is needed not to be centralized.
  • LAN can be wired and wireless as well, Ethernet can only be wired.
  • The topologies employed in the ethernet is bus and star while in LAN, the topologies can ve bus, ring, star, and mesh, etc.
  • Ethernet guided transmission media is used, while in LAN both uses the guided and unguided transmission media are used.
  • Ethernet, the transmission of data is done only when the path is unoccupied, while the LAN does not have any limitation as such ethernet.
  • There is a limitation take pace in transmission of ethernet, while there is no limitation takes place in transmission of LAN.
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MCC full form

 What is the MCC full form in electrical?

Answer:

  • Motor Control Centers

What does MCC mean?


MCC is commercial and industrial applications, quite a few electric motors are required, and it is often desirable to control some or all of the motors from a central location. The apparatus designed for this function is the use of a motor control center.

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