VoIP full form

 What is the full form of VoIP?


  • Voice Over Internet Protocol

What does VoIP mean?

VoIP is one type of technology that allows you to make voice calls using a broadband internet connection instead of a regular phone line. Some VoIP services limit you to calling only other VoIP users, while others allow you to call anyone with a phone number, including local, long-distance, mobile, and international numbers. Some VoIP services require you to use a device or a special VoIP phone, while others allow you to use a standard phone with a VoIP adapter.

VoIP advantages and disadvantages

Users can make phone calls over LANs or the internet using VOIP. This cutting-edge technology can transform analog voice signals into digital data packets. This packet can then be sent over the internet, allowing conversations to take place anywhere in the world that has access to the internet. As a result, this article discusses the benefits and drawbacks of VoIP in order to help you make a better decision.

Advantages of VoIP:

  • It is flexible.
  • Less expensive features.
  • Voice quality
  • Hosted VoIP saves the business money
  • It is cost-saving
  • It is accessibility 
  • VoIP is easier to install, configure and maintain
  • Even older technology like a fax is supported
  • VoIP integrated with other business systems
  • VOIP scales UP and Down easily
Disadvantages of  VoIP:
  • Reliable internet connection required.
  • Power outages/Emergencies
  • It consumes data bandwidth
  • With VoIP emergency calls, it is hard to locate you and send help in time
  • Devices need a sustained power source
  • Latency and traffic
  • No standard protocol is applicable
  • Loss of service during outages
  • VoIP phones are useless without power, which can be a significant disadvantage in the event of an emergency during a power outage.

CQFP full form

 What is the full form of CQFP?


  • Ceramic Quad Flat Package

What does CQFP mean?

CQFP is a hermetic box made up of a true piece of dry pressed ceramic encasing a uniformed Leadframe with a tie bar. This package's lead count ranges from 28 to 240, with a lead pitch of 15.7 mils to 50 mils. CQFPs have gold or Kovar finish leads that can be solder coated upon request. Lids are optional for CQFPs, which are sealed over the package cavity at temperatures ranging from 400 to 460 degrees Celsius.

ECU full form

 What is the full form of ECU?


  • Electronic Control Unit

What does ECU mean?

ECU is widely used for automotive design. The ECU originally referred to an engine control unit but the meaning of the term was later expanded to any electronic unit in the vehicle. It's an integrated device in automotive electronics that regulates one or more of the vehicle's electrical systems or subsystems.

CAM full form

 What is the full form of CAM?


  • Conditional Access Module

What does CAM mean?

A conditional access module (CAM) is an electronic device that usually includes a smart card slot and enables an integrated digital television or set-top box to view conditional access content encrypted with a conditional access system.

Difference Between Single-mode and Multimode Fiber

There are so many cable options are available the one might wonder where to start. This article will set you on the right path in the decision process. So here this article gives the information about the difference between single-mode and multimode fiber to better understand this topic. 

Definition of single-mode optical fiber:

Single-mode optical fiber is a type of optical fiber that allows the propagation of only a single ray of light along with the fiber. Here the core to cladding diameter is 9 to 125 micrometers. It is also known as uni mode optical fiber or mono mode optical fiber.

Definition of multimode optical fiber:

Multimode fiber is a light ray propagate through the fiber at the same time, but each reflects at a certain different angle than others during transmission. The core to cladding diameter in the case of multimode optical fiber is 50-62  to 125 micrometers. 

Difference between single-mode and multimode fiber:

  • Single-mode fiber has 8-10  Micrometer and 125-micrometer respective core and cladding diameter, while the multi-mode fiber has 50 to 85 micro and 125 to 400-micrometer core and cladding respectively.
  • Single-mode fiber includes a single ray of light, while multi-mode fiber involves more than one light ray.
  • Single-mode fiber involves applications such as WAN, MAN, and data centers. While the contrary Multimode fiber involves applications such as a LAN, SAN.
  • Single-mode fiber can cover a large distance up to 20-40 km, the regenerator is placed in between the distance of 20-40 km. while the multi-mode fiber covers a short distance and requires to place the regenerator in every 2 km. 
  • Single-mode fiber has a large range of 1260 nanometer to 1640 nanometer, while the wavelength of the produced signal through LED in the multimode is 850 nm to 1300 nanometer.
  • The installation and connectors cost is lower in the case of multimode fiber as compared to Single-mode fiber.
  • Single-mode fiber produces superior transmission quality and there is a minor loss. But the multi-mode fiber, multiple rays are employed which generate interference and attenuation.

Difference Between Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

The main concept behind air conditioning and refrigeration is to lower the temperature of a particular area compared to the surrounding. These phenomena are used in a variety of domestic and industrial equipment, such as air conditioners and refrigerators. So here this article gives the difference between refrigeration and air conditioning to better understand this topic.

Definition of Refrigeration:

The process by which the heat from a closed region is transferred to the region of high temperature to reduce the temperature of that particular region is known as Refrigeration.

Definition of Air conditioning:

The process of removal of heat from a region to reduce the temperature of that specific region along with maintaining desired humidity and the air purity conditions is known as air conditioning.

Difference between refrigeration and Air conditioning:

  • In refrigeration, the heat is transferred to a region with higher temperature, while the Air conditioning the heat is removed from a given area to maintain a cool temperature.
  • The refrigeration, the circulation system is designed to keep the cool air within the unit, while the air conditioning the circulation system is designed to blow the cooled air out of the unit.
  •  In Refrigeration, no fan is required, while the Air conditioning fan is required.
  •  In refrigeration, the air is supplied to the unit through pipes, while the Air conditioning the inbuilt chemicals within the unit absorbs air into the system.
  • Refrigeration is used to cool the food for food preservation, while air conditioning is used to cool the room to maintain humidity.
  • The ideal range of temperature for refrigeration lies between 1.7-degree Celcius to 4 degrees Celcius, while in air conditioning, the ideal range exists between 18 degrees Celcius to 24 degrees celsius.
  • Refrigeration one single unit encompasses the evaporator, compressor, and condenser, while the Air conditioning there is two individual units are present. One unit for the evaporator and the other unit houses the compressor and the condenser.
  • The refrigeration process requires far less energy than the air conditioning process.

Difference Between Element and Compound

Element and compounds both are pure chemical substances found in nature. The most significant distinction between an element and a compound is that an element is a substance made up of the same form of atoms, while a compound is made up of multiple elements in particular proportions. Example of the element includes iron, copper, hydrogen, and oxygen, while the example of compounds includes water and salt.

What is an Element?

An element is a material made up of just one form of an atom. A good example is that of the hydrogen atom. The hydrogen atoms have a single proton as well as a single electron. As the number of protons in an atom increases, the element form changes as well.

What is Compound?

A compound refers to substances that form due to a combination of two or more elements that is different from one another. This combination of elements takes place in such a way that the atoms belonging to different types of elements are together by chemical bonds. Such bonds form because of electrons sharing among the particles of the atom. So here this article gives the information about the element and compound to better understand this topic.

Difference between Element And Compound:

  • Element is pure substances that are composed of only one type of atom particles, while the compound is substances that are formed by two or more different types of elements that are united chemically in fixed proportions.
  • Element is nearly 118 elements of which nearly 94 occur naturally on earth, while the compound is almost endless.
  • Some of the examples of elements are iron, copper and gold, etc. While a few examples of compounds are NaOH, NaCl etc.
  • Element is classified as either metal, nonmetal, or metalloids, while the compound is classified according to their bonds which can be ionic, molecular, or metallic.
  • Elements are represented by symbols and numbers. For example, sodium is represented by Na, while the compound is represented by its chemical formula. For example, the salt is represented by the formula of NaCl.
  • Elements can be distinguished by their atomic number, distinguished by their fixed ratio of a different element.
  • The element cannot be broken down by chemical reactions. Compounds can be easily separated into simpler substances by some of the chemical reactions.
  • As only one type of atom makes up an element, all the properties of that atom are represented by its atom, in the case of compounds, the same type of molecules make up the compounds.
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Difference between physical and chemical change

Physical and chemical changes are classified on the basis of the result according to the occurred action. When the change results in the variation of appearance like the change of state of ice on melting then it is called the physical change. While the change causes variation in chemical composition along with its appearance like rusting of iron then it is known as a chemical change. So here this article gives the difference between a physical change and chemical change to better understand this topic.

What is a physical change?

The type of change that is associated with a variation in the physical property of a substance rather than its chemical composition is known as a physical change. The properties of the substance altered during physical change are odour, colour, temperature, shape, solubility, melting point, texture etc.

What is a chemical change?

This type of change that varies the chemical composition of the substance along with the change in physical properties is known as a chemical reaction of change. 

Difference between physical and chemical change:

  • Physical change is when a substance undergoes a physical change, its composition remains the same despite its molecules being rearranged, while chemical change is when a substance undergoes a chemical change entirely, Thus chemical change involves the formation of a new substance.
  • A physical change involves very little to there is no absorption of energy, while during a chemical reaction, some absorption, as well as the evolution of energy, take place.
  • Generally, physical changes do not involve the production of energy, while chemical changes usually involve the production of energy.
  • Physical change is some of the reason for a temporary change, but chemical change is a permanent change.
  • The physical change affects only physical properties like size and shape while the chemical change both physical and chemical properties of the substance including its composition.
  • Physical change, no new substance is formed, while the chemical change is always accompanied by one or more new substances.
  • Physical changes are easily reversible, while chemical changes are irreversible.
  • Some examples of physical change are freezing of water, melting of wax, boiling of water, etc while a few examples of chemical change are digestion of food, burning of coal, rusting.
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Difference Between Schottky and Frenkel Defect

What is Frenkel Defect?

When an atom or cation leaves its original location in the lattice structure to create a vacancy while occupying another interstitial position within the solid crystal, the Frenkel Defect is formed.

What is the Schottky defect?

When they are oppositely charged atoms leave their corresponding lattice sites, they generate a pair of vacancy defects known as the Schottky defect. The overall electrical neutrality of the crystal is retained since both catio and anion exit the lattice sites at the same time.

Difference  between Schottky defect and Frenkel defect:

  • The Schottky defect occurs in those ionic crystals where the difference in size between cation and anion is small, Frenkel defect typically occurs in those ionic crystals where their size of the anion is too high as opposed to that of the execution.
  • Schottky defects the atom permanently to leave the crystal, while the Frenkel defect atoms leave the original lattice site and occupy the interstitial position, so the atom resides within the solid crystal.
  • The Schottky defect occurs both cation and anion leave the solid crystal, while the Frenkel defect only the smaller ion leaves its original lattice site, whereas the anion remains in original lattice sites.
  • The Schottky defect has two atoms which is reduced from the crystal for each Schottky defect, while the number of atoms present in the crystal before and after the Frenkel defect remains the same.
  • The Schottky defect produces two vacancies, while the Frenkel defect creates one vacancy as well as a self interstitial defect.
  • Due to vacancy formation, the Schottky defect reduces the density of the solid, Density of the solid crystal before and after the Frenkel defect remains the same as no atom leaves the solid.
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Advantages and disadvantages of line interactive UPS

When power is lost, a line-interactive UPS keeps the inverter in line and redirects the battery DC current direction from charging to supplying current. So here this article gives the advantages and disadvantages of line-interactive UPS to better understand this topic.

Advantages of line interactive UPS:

  • High reliability
  • High efficiency
  • Reasonable voltage conditioning
  • Lower component count
  • Rugged design
  • Lower operating temperature
  • Lower electricity consumption
Disadvantages of line interactive UPS:
  • Impractical over 5KVA
  • It requires frequent battery use in areas of the extreme voltage of distortion
  • Do not provide power factor correction or frequency regulation
  • No, protection against all forms of power irregularities.
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Advantages and disadvantages of offline ups

The offline UPS directly supplies the AC power to the device connected to the load device. In the event of a power outage, the offline UPS moves the transfer switch to the off position and connects the load to the battery backup route. So here this article gives the advantages and disadvantages of offline UPS to better understand this topic.

Pros or Advantages of offline UPS:

  • Offline UPS has high efficiencies since the charger is not continuously on.
  • Offline UPS is not very costly.
  • The charger's power handling capability has been reduced.
  • Internal control is simpler in offline UPS.

Cons or Disadvantages of offline UPS:

  • There is a finite transfer time from mains to the inverter when the mains supply fails.
  • The output of offline UPS is not perfectly reliable.
  • The output includes voltage spikes, brownouts, and blackouts since the offline UPS provides the key supply when it is present.
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Advantages and disadvantages of online UPS

A rectifier, battery, and inverter are mounted in-line with the AC mains and load in an online UPS. The rectifier circuit receives the AC power supplied to the online UPS before converting it to DC power. The battery is charged with DC electricity, which is then delivered to the inverter, and finally to the load. This UPS have much more complex design than offline UPS systems, while the price, weight, and volume are higher. So here this article gives the advantages and disadvantages of Online UPS to better understand this topic. 

Pros or Advantages of online UPS: 

  • It provides isolation between the main power source and load
  • Power regulation is better.
  • Transfer time is practically zero since the inverter is always ON.
  • All the disturbances of supply such as blackout, brownout, spikes, etc. are absent in the output.
  • The inverter is always ON, the quality of load voltage is free from distortion.

Cons or Disadvantages of Online UPS:

  • The overall efficiency of UPS is reduced since the inverter is always ON.
  • Online UPS is costlier than other uninterruptible power supply systems.
  • The wattage of the rectifier is increased since it has to supply power to the inverter as well as charge the battery.

Advantages and disadvantages of ASK

A digital modulation technique in which the amplitude of the carrier wave is altered according to the modulating signal is known as amplitude shift keying. It is the simplest and most straightforward method of digital modulation. So here this article gives the advantages and disadvantages of ASK to better understand this topic.

Advantages of ASK modulation:

  • It offers high bandwidth efficiency.
  • It has a simple receiver design.
  • Its generation and detection are easy thus facilitate a simple transmitter and receiver section.
  • ASK modulation and demodulation are relatively low-cost methods.
  • Its version OOK is used to relay morse codes over radio frequencies.
  • Digital data can be transmitted over optical fiber using ASK modulation.

Disadvantages of ASK modulation:

  • It offers lower power efficiency.
  • ASK modulation is very susceptible to noise interference. This is because noise has an impact on the amplitude.
  • Poor bandwidth efficiency.
  • ASK techniques are not suitable for high bit rate data transmission.

Advantages and disadvantages of cellular network

 A cellular network is a radio network distributed over land areas called cells, each served by at least one fixed-location transceiver, known as the cell site or the base station. To prevent interference and have guaranteed bandwidth within each cell, each cell in a cellular network uses a different set of frequencies than neighboring cells. So here this article gives the advantages and disadvantages of cellular networks to better understand this topic.

Advantages of the cellular network:

  • It provides voice and data services.
  • It links users on both fixed and mobile phones.
  • It has increased capacity.
  • It is easy to maintain.
  • It is easy to upgrade the equipment.
  • It has consumed less power.
  • Because of its wireless existence, it is used in the place where cables cannot be laid out.
  • It is flexible enough to use the features and function of almost all public and private networks.
  • It can be distributed to the larger coverage areas.
  • It is simple to update the equipment and mobile and fixed subscriber are automatically connected to the cellular network once their phones are turned on. 
  • It reduces interference from other signals.

Disadvantages of the cellular network:

  • Macrocells are affected by the multipath signal loss.
  • As the contact is over the air, it has security vulnerabilities.
  • The cost of setting up cellular network infrastructure is higher.
  • The capacity is lower and depends on channel/multiple access techniques employed to serve subscribers.
  • Physical obstruction, climatic conditions, and inclement weather all have an effect on wireless communication.
  • It offers less data rate compared to a wired network such as fiber optics, DSL, etc. The data rate varies based on a wireless standard such as GSM, CDMA, LTE, etc.

Advantages and disadvantages of cellular phone

Cell phones become an invention that would eventually change how we think about communication. Instead of being tethered to a landline that needed a direct link or even operator control, Martin Cooper encouraged us to bring a computer with us that allowed us to communicate instantly. So here this article gives the information about the advantages and disadvantages of cell phones to better understand this topic.

Advantages of the cellular phone:

  • Cell phone gives you an option to call for help if you need it.
  • It is a highly portable ad affordable device.
  • Cell phones are a way to stop boredom.
  • It stores multiple information items for easy access.
  • Cell phones simplify the logistics of calling.
  • You can develop an exercise and activity plan with a cell phone.
  • There are numerous learning opportunities available to use because of cell phones.
  • The modern phone is an extremely versatile tool.
  • They provide a lifetime when there is an emergency.
  • Cell phones teach us about responsibility.
  • Cell phones provide needed information.
  • It makes it easier to access the internet
  • If you get lost, a mobile phone will help you find your way.
  • With today's mobile phones, you have better internet access.
  • It allows for effective scheduling coordination.
  • It provides a means of instilling accountability in the next generation.
  • A mobile phone helps you to exchange details with others in real-time.

Disadvantages of the cellular phone:

  • With mobile phones, there are concerns of sexual harassment, exploitation, and child pornography.
  • Cell phone batteries can be dangerous.
  • The new cell phones can be very expensive.
  • It can be used to exploit others.
  • It eliminates chances for privacy.
  • Cell phones create a significant distraction for people.
  • Bullying is more frequent with cell phones.
  • Cell phones create distractions that limit productivity.
  • It increases opportunities for cheating.
  • The use of cell phones increases the amount of electronic waste generated.
  • People may develop addictive habits as a result of cell phone technology.
  • It makes people more conscious of the issue of cyberbullying.
  • With a mobile phone, even good kids can become bullies.
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Advantages and disadvantages of satellite phone

The word "satellite communication" refers to an electronic communication package that is launched into space. Its primary purpose is to initiate or assist in space travel. It has made a big contribution to the international contact pattern.So here this article gives the advantages and disadvantages of satellite phone to better understand this topic.

Advantages satellite phone:

  • No cell tower required.
  • Excellent connectivity all over the world
  • Provides a more secure connection
  • Uniformity in the phone number
  • Great rental options
  • Highly useful in disaster response
  • Wide network coverage
  • No dropped calls
  • Much stronger signal than cell phone offer
  • Equipped with voice mail and incoming phone number to indicate waiting for messages.
  • Uniform performance irrespective of location
  • No installation/set up required

Disadvantages of satellite phone:

  • Only work outside.
  • Must have a clear line of sight(LOS) to satellites in the sky
  • Low data bandwidth for internet access etc
  • Severe weather may interrupt service
  • Usually bigger in size than traditional cell phones
  • The high cost of the phone as well as the call cost
  • Per-minute charges often higher than cell phones
  • Large antenna size.
  • Local government regulation may also prevent one from using satellite phones without prior permission
  • Delay in voice communication conversions, particularly when using networks based on geosynchronous orbits
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TMS full form

 What is the full form of TMS?


  • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

What does TMS mean?

TMS is a non-invasive technique that uses a wire coil held outside the head to produce a magnetic field. In adjacent brain areas, the magnetic field generates an electrical current. TMS was created as a method for mapping brain activity in the beginning. It appears to hold promise as a treatment for a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, especially major depression.

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  1. Full form of EEG

EEG full form

 What is the full form of EEG?


  • Electroencephalogram

What does EEG mean?

An EEG is a test that uses tiny metal discs attached to your scalp to detect electrical activity in your brain. One of the most common epilepsy diagnostic tests is an EEG. An EEG may also be used to diagnose other forms of brain disorders. Electrical impulses are used by the brain cells to communicate and keep them working all the time, even while you are sleeping.

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  1. Full form of TMS

SSR full form

 What is the full form of SSR?


  • Solid State Relay

What does SSR mean?

SSR is the relay that is a substitute for the electromagnetic relay. It referred to as an optocoupler due to its construction. It consists of a light source and a light sensor. This type of relay mainly used to provide isolation than switching high current. The output resistance remains totally constant even after they have multiple uses.

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