Zigbee technology

Zigbee is a wireless protocol used for wireless networking and also have connectivity. Zigbee network is the wireless language that every device used to connect to one another. It is the recently emerged technology of network communication based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard where IEEE stands for Institute of electrical and also have electronic engineers. Zigbee is a new standard developed by the Zigbee alliance for full form of PAN personal area network, consisting of more than 270 companies and many more. Let us now check it out basic features of Zigbee network to know more details about the Zigbee network.

Feature of Zigbee
  • It incorporates power saving mechanisms for all device classes
  • Discovery mechanism with full application confirmation
  • Pairing mechanism with full application confirmation
  • Various transmission option included broadcast
  • It uses a small packet compared with other technology WiFi and Bluetooth
  • Low data rate
  • Low battery consumption
  • The maximum range of operation for a Zigbee device is 250 feet
  • Easy to implement
  • Low cost
  • It supports up to 65000 nodes connected in a network
  • Support alliance standard or manufacturer specific profiles
  • Zigbee uses small packets compared with  other technology WiFi and Bluetooth
  • Multiple star topology and interpersonal area network communication
  • It supports up to 65000 nodes connected in a network
  • Zigbee can automatically establish its network
Zigbee network consists of three different types of devices such as like:
  • Router
  • Zigbee coordinator and 
  • End devices.
At least one ZigBee coordinators are acts as root and bridge of the network. The coordinator is responsible for handling and storing the information while transmitting and receiving operation.

Coordinator and end devices always depend on the Different types of Zigbee topology like star, tree, and mesh.

Zigbee router is internal devices while end devices have limited functionality to communicate with parent nodes. So battery power is saved.

Zigbee architecture consists of various layers where IEEE 802.15.4 is defined as two layers a physical layer and MAC layers.

Zigbee specification has two implementation options or feature sets: 1. Zigbee and 2. Zigbee PRO. Zigbee feature set is designed to support smaller networks with more than hundreds of devices in a single network. Zigbee PRO feature set is the most popular device for the choice of developer and the specification used for most alliance developed standard. This article gives some basic feature of Zigbee networks, advantages and disadvantages and application of Zigbee networks.

Different types of layers :

1. Physical layer: This layer does modulation and demodulation operation upon both side transmitting and receiving signal respectively.

2. MAC layer: This layer can be used for synchronizing communication. It is a reliable transmission of data by accessing different network with CSMA.


Different types of a layer in Zigbee network
3. Network layer: This layer can be used for network set up, such as disconnect network, routing, device configuration, network set up etc.

4. Application support sub-layer: This layer interface with the network layers for data managing services.

5. Application framework: This layer is responsible for detecting, initiating and binding other devices.

Zigbee topology:

There are different types of topology like a star, mesh, tree topology.

1. Star topology :

A star network has a central node, which is linked to all other nodes in the networks. All messages travel via the central node.

The star topology consists of a coordinator and several end devices as shown in the figure. The end device must be communicated only with the coordinator. So any packet exchange between end devices first must go through the Zigbee coordinator.

The advantages of star topology are that it is simple and packet go through at most two hopes to reach their destination.

2. Tree topology :

A tree network has a top node with a branch like structure as shown in the figure. To reach its destination, a message travels up the tree and then go down the tree.

As shown in the figure, the network terminal consists of a central node, which is a coordinator, several routers and end device.

So in this topology, the total task of the router is to extend the coverage of the network. The end nodes connected to the routers or the coordinator are referred to as children. Only the coordinator and the routers can have children like that.

The coordinator and the routers can have children. Hence only they can be parents. A special case of tree topology is called a cluster type tree topology. In it, a parent with its children is called a cluster, as shown in the figure.

One of the disadvantages of tree topology is that if two nodes are located close to each other, they can not directly communicate.

3. Mesh topology :

A mesh topology looks like a tree structure, in which some leaves are directly linked. A message can travel across the tree when a suitable route is available.

It is also called peer to peer topology. It consists of one coordinator several routers,, and end device as shown n figure. 

Following characteristics of a mesh topology
  • Dead zone eliminated in this topology
  • In this topology, the device can be placed close to each other so that they use less power
  • Adding or removing a device is very easy in this topology
  • Any source of a device can communicate with any destination in the network
  • It uses a more complex routing protocol in comparison to the star topology
                              Zigbee topology
Zigbee is a wireless protocol used for wireless networking and connectivity. Zigbee is the wireless language that every device used to connect to one another. It is the recently emerged technology of network communication based on the used IEEE 802.15.4 standard where IEEE stands for Institute of electrical and also for electronic engineers. Zigbee is a new standard developed by the Zigbee alliance for used personal area network (PAN), Consisting of more than 270 companies. 

Let us now check it out the application of the Zigbee network to know more details about the Zigbee network.

Home automation :
  • Heating, lighting
  • Cooling, door locking mechanisms
  • Home security system
  • Smoke detector
Telecom application :
  • Used to transmit and receive the message
  • Share ring tone, images, and contacts
  • Emergency services
Industrial automation :
  • Personal tracking
  • Livestock tracking
  • Record and transmit critical data like pressure, temperature and also a vibration
Security :
  • Home security
  • Fire detection
Some other applications :
  • Health care
  • Smart energy
  • Remote control for consumer electronics 
  • Hotel room access
  • Smart metering

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