MCP full form

 What is the full form of MCP?


  • Motor Circuit Protector

What does MCP mean?

MCP is only magnetic protection against fault currents ad therefore their trip is instantaneous. To provide overload protection, it is necessary to complement them with an overload relay ad a contractor. The main advantage of MCP is that their trip response can be fine-tuned according to the expected inrush current, which may vary according to the type of motor stator used.

EMI full form

 What is the full form of EMI?


  • Electro-Magnetic Induction

What does EMI mean?

EMI is a process in which a conductor is put in a particular position and the magnetic field varying or the magnetic field is stationary and the conductor is moving. This produces a voltage or EMF across the electrical conductor. 

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  1. UTP full form

ATS full form

 What is the full form of ATS?


  • Automatic Transfer Switch

What does ATS mean?

ATS is basic a device that, automatically transfers a power supply from its primary source to a backup source. When it senses a failure or outage in the form of the primary source. When a failure occurs in a primary power system, the ATS invokes a steady power source such as a UPS.  ATS can also be used to start up more long-term power systems, like local diesel generators, as well as to run electric equipment until power is restored.

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APFC full form

 What is the full form of APFC?


  •  Automatic Power Factor Control

What does APFC mean?

APFC is a power control panel that is mainly used for the improvement of the power factor. The power factor can be explained as the ratio of active power to apparent power. It is a basic key factor in measuring electrical consumption. Everyone knows how costly electricity has become at present time. Therefore it becomes almost important to cut down on electrical consumption for reducing expenditure.

CPT full form

 What is the full form of CPT?


  • Control Power Trasformer

What does CPT mean?

A control power transformer is an isolation transformer that provides good voltage regulation. It is also designed to provide a high degree of secondary voltage stability during a rief period of overload conditions. A control power transformer is also known as the machine tools transformer, industrials control transformer, or control transformers.

PGA full form

 What is the full form of PGA?


  • Pin Grid Array

What does PGA mean?

A PGA is a type of integrated circuit packaging. In PGA the package is square or rectangular, and the pins are arranged in a regular array on the undesirable of the package. The pis are commonly spaced 2.54 mm apart. and may or may not cover the entire undesirable of the package.

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LCC full form

 What is the full form of LCC?


  • Leadless Chip Carrier

What does LCC mean?

An LCC is an integrated circuit package. That has no pins and lead for contact. This surface mount device makes of metal pads at the outer edges to establish a connection with the circuit board. Leadless chip carriers are popular, as they are light in weight, adaptable to a wide range of applications, and are considered ideal for surface mount applications.

PISO full form

What is the full form of PISO?


  • Parellel In Serial Out Registor

What does PISO mean?

The parallel in/serial-out is a basically shift register which is stores the data ad shift it on a clock-by-clock basis, and delays it by the number of stages times the clock period. In addition, parallel in/serial-out really means that we can load data in parallel into all types of stages before it is any shifting ever begins. 

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Full form of CPGA

 What is the full form of CPGA?


  • Ceramic Pin Grid Array

What does CPGA mean?

The  CPGA is a square or rectangular through-hole ceramic package whose pins or leads are arranged in a square array at the bottom of the package body. The CPGA can either it have a frit sealed ceramic lid or it has a solder sealed metal lid.

CE full form

 What is the full form of CE?


  • Chip Enable

What does Chip Enable mean?

CE is basically used to activate a particular device on the bus. It is a process during access for erasing, reading, or writing.  This signal may alternatively e called as a chip select or some device enable. It is a difference from a reset line. Its design schematics depends upon manufacture, ut chip pinouts have interface standards. 

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Difference Between Electromagnetic Wave and Matter Wave

The electromagnetic and matter waves are the two out of three major categories in which waves are classified. The main significant difference between electromagnetic wave ad matter waves is that electromagnetic waves are composed of electric and magnetic field components. As a matter wave, no such field component exists. So here this article gives the main key difference between electromagnetic wave ad matter-wave to better understand this topic.

Definition of an electromagnetic wave:

Electromagnetic waves also called the EM wave, it is an outcome of the oscillating electric ad magnetic field. basically, the electromagnetic wave is composed of electric and magnetic fields, and their vibration causes the generation of electromagnetic waves.

Definition of matter-wave:

Matter waves are associated with moving particles and they are the result of the motion of the electron, proton and neutron, and other fundamental particles along with atoms and molecules. As its major constituent is matter hence it is known as matter waves.

Difference between electromagnetic waves and matter waves:

  • The electromagnetic wave has easily and a magnetic field associated with them, while matter-wave has no electric and magnetic associated with them.
  • An electromagnetic wave originates in general from a source in space, for example, accelerated charges radiate electromagnetic waves, while in matter waves show existence with respect to the fundamental material particles, for example, electron, proton, neutron including atoms, and molecules.
  • Electromagnetic waves can easily pass through the vacuum, While matter waves cannot pass through the vacuum.
  • An electromagnetic wave can easily propagate through a vacuum in order to transmit the signal from one point to another, while the propagation of matter-wave through free space is not possible as an appropriate medium is required for matter-wave to travel.
  • Electromagnetic waves the rays emitted from a source in space, while in matter waves are associated with material particles, they do not exist without material particles.
  • Electromagnetic waves can easily pass through the vacuum, while matter-wave has velocities less than the velocity of light and depend on the situation.
  • In electromagnetic waves, the energies of quantized, while in matter waves energies of not quantized.
  • The wavelength of Electromagnetic waves can e measured easily, while in matter-wave wavelength cannot e measured easily.
  • Radio waves and electron beam are the two major examples of electromagnetic waves and matter-wave, respectively.

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  1. Difference between an electric and magnetic field
  2. Difference between the electromagnet and permanent magnet
  3. Difference between the magnetic field and magnetic flux
  4. Difference between static and current electricity

Difference Between Ductility and Malleability

Ductility ad malleability is the two properties associated with stress undertaking the ability of metals. The difference between ductility and malleability is that ductility is the result of the application of tensile stress o the metal while the malleability of metal is an outcome of compressive stress applied to it.

Definition of Ductility:

The ductility is defined as the ability of solid material which is to plastically deform to a larger extent before a crack appears when it is subjected to external tensile loading.

Definition of Malleability:

While the malleability is defined as the ability of basically solid material which is to plastically deform to a larger extent before it cracks appears when it is subjected to external compressive loading. 

Difference between ductility and malleability:

  • The ductility of solid material decreases with an increase in temperature, while the malleability of solid material increases with increases in temperature. 
  • Ductility is the ability of a metal to get stretched under tension without getting damaged in the sense of breakage or some fracture. While malleability is the capacity of metal that shows its behavior of getting flattened under the compression without undergoing breakage. 
  • Ductility is a crucial property when the solid is undergoing wire drawing operation because tensile force acts on it. While malleability is a crucial property when the solid is undergoing rolling, extrusion, etc. Operation because compressive force acts on it.
  • both properties ductility ad malleability have some effect on temperature change. The increase in the temperature cause decreases ib the ductility of the material while the rise in the temperature increases the malleability of the materials. 
  • To measure the ductility of metal, which is a bend test is performed, where the extent up to which the metal can be stretched without fracture is checked. but the malleability of material is checked by the pressure withholding ability of the metal. Thus the level of pressure is checked and that the metal can sustain without getting fractured.
  • When we talk about their variation with respect to each other then we generally define, ductile metals exhibit high malleability whereas the metals that have high malleability may not possess good ductility.  for example lead shows high malleability ut poor ductility.
  • As stretching is associated with ductility thus the result is a ductile nature and the metal is transformed into thin wires. However, as deformation leads to produce a flat surface thus as an outcome malleable nature the metal is transformed into a thin sheet-look-like surface.
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Induction motor advantages and disadvantages

 An induction motor is the most modest electrical machine from a constructional point of the view, Induction motor works o the principle of induction where the electromagnetic field is induced into the rotor when the rotating magnetic field of the stator cuts the stationary rotor. So here this article gives the main key advantages and disadvantages of Induction motor to better understand this topic.

Advantages ad disadvantages of induction motor:

  • Induction motor is very cheap in cost to compare other motors.
  • It is a highly efficient motor. The efficacy of induction motor from 85% to 95%.
  • The maintenance of an induction motor is very less compared to the other motor like  DC motor and synchronous motor.
  • As the working of an induction motor is very simple. 
  • The construction of an induction motor is very robust and sturdy.
  • An induction motor can e operated in a polluted and explosive environment as they do not have a brush which can cause sparks.
  • The brushes are not used in an induction motor. So, there are no sparks in the motor and it can e used in polluted and hazardous environments.
  • Only one AC source requires to operate. So it does not require DC excitation like a  decision synchronous motor.
  • 3 phase induction motor is the self-starting motor. So, any special starting arrangement or extra starting motor will not be required. 

Disadvantages of induction motor:

  • The power factor of the motor is very low during the light load conditions.
  • The Single-phase induction motor is not self-starting. It requires some auxiliary for stating.
  • The motor cannot use in such applications where high starting torque is necessary like traction and for lifting weight.
  • The three-phase induction motor is a constant speed motor. The change in the speed of the motor is very low during different loading conditions. So, The speed control of the Induction motor is too much difficult.
  • During light load condition. it operates at a very low power factor. because of this, it draws a higher current. Which results in higher copper loss and less efficiency.
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Advantages and disadvantages of permanent magnet synchronous motor

 A permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is a device designed by using permanent magnets embedded in the steel rotor to create a constant magnetic field. This type of motor one of the best choice for a full range of motion control application. So here this article gives the Permanent magnet synchronous motor advantages and disadvantages to netter understand this topic. 

Advantages of the permanent magnet DC motor:

  • Permanent magnets are smaller in size.
  • These motors do not require any field of windings, and they do not have field circuit copper losses. This increases their efficiency.
  • For smaller rating permanent magnet which reduces the manufacturing cost and thus the PMDC motor is cheaper.
  • This motor has a low torque ripple so it can generate constant torque. Also, its ability to maintain full torque at very low speeds.
  • It has only stator winding and no rushes so its heat generation is low compared with a brush motor.
  • Do not need an extra DC power source for it. The AC supply is provided on the stator and it is the permanent magnets are on the rotor.
  • Permet magnet motor full-load efficiency is higher than the use of an AC induction motor.
  • The permanent magnet synchronous motor has not any brushes so it has a low maintenance cost.

Disadvantages of permanent magnet synchronous motor:

  • There is a  risk of demagnetization of the poles which may be caused by a large armature current.  Demagetizatiob cab also occurs due to excessive heating and also when the motor is an overload for a long period of time.
  • Extra ampere Cannot be added to reduce the armature reaction.
  • The magnetic field of the PMDC motor is preset at all times, even when the motor is not being used.
  • The permanent magnet produces a high flux density as that an externally supplied shunt field does. Therefore, a PMDC motor has lower induced torque per ampere-turns of armature current the shunt than a shunt motor of the same rating.
  • Permanent magnet motor solutions tend to need a higher initial cost than the use of AC induction motors so more difficult to starts up than AC induction motors.
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Asynchronous transmission advantages and disadvantages

Asynchronous transmission is the transmission of data in the unit of character synchronization signals in the form of nits. The transmitter and the receiver have independent clocks, and neither side provides a clock synchronization signal to the other side. So here let us discuss the advantages and disadvantages of asynchronous transmission to better understand this topic.  

Advantages of Asynchronous transmission:

  • Its characteristics are self-oriented.
  • The blocking is not necessary. so the resource may be feed.
  • The request does not require targeting a particular server.
  • Transmitting and receiving clock is not dependent on the counterpart.
  • Transmitter and receivers do not need synchronization.
  • The request does not require targeting a particular server.
  • Availability of the server does not mandatory required when a request is generated.
  • A connectionless protocol may be used for such a transmission.
Disadvantages of Asynchronous transmission:
  • Start and stop bit are overheating.
  • Handling of errors is more intricate.
  • Response time cannot be predicted.
  • It has a lower transmission rate.
  • The timing error may take place cause it is difficult to determine synchronicity.
  • noise is signal may lead to false recognition of start and stop bit.
  • Application is comparatively hard to design for such a transmission. 
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Types of Synchronous Motor

Depending upon the method of magnetization of the rotor, there are basically two types of synchronous motors:

Types of synchronous motor:

  1. non-excited
  2. Direct current excited

Let us discuss one by one

  1. non-excited

In this motor, the rotor these motor is constructed y steel. During its rotation at synchronous speed, it follows the synchronous rotating field in different steps, due to this it provides constant fields. 

Due to the field interaction of the stator with the rotor, it becomes an electromagnet and it has north and south poles that interact with stator field poles in this way rotor moves.

The rotor is made from such that has a high value for magnetization and demagnetization means it retentively is high.

It's again divided into three main  parts:
  • Reluctance motors
  • Hysteresis motors
  • Permanent magnet motors
In the reluctance motor, the rotor is made up of steel casting with the use of the projecting tooted poles. To minimize the torque ripples, the rotor poles are less than the stator poles. It contains squirrel-cage winding which is to provide starting torque to the rotor. Used in instrumentation applications.

Hysteresis motors are seld starting motor. This rotor is a smooth cylinder is made up of with the high coercivity magnetically hard cobalt steel. These motors are expensive and It is used where precise constant speed is required. It is generally used as servomotors.

In a permanent magnet synchronous motor, a permanent magnet is used along with steel for rotor design. They have a constant magnetic field in the rotor, so the induction motor winding cannot be used for starting time. It being used as gearless elevator motors.

         2. Direct current excited

The rating of DC motor is larger than one HP or one KW. The external direct current source is connected with the rotor of these motors for excitation.  This Dc source is connected with the motor by a rectifier circuit for rectification of supply.

The direct current at the rotor can is provided in two ways first one is by connecting ab external source and the second is by attaching a direct current generator with the shaft of the rotor.

Synchronous motor

As an electrical, the electrical motor is an electro-mechanical device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.  

What is a synchronous motor?

The definition of the synchronous motor states that, An AC motor in which at steady state, rotation of the shaft is in sync with the frequency of the applied current. The synchronous motor works as an AC motor but here the total number of rotation made by the shaft is equal to the interference multiple of the frequency of the applied current.

Working principle of synchronous motor

  • The synchronous motor will work on the basic principle of magnetic locking.
  • When two unlike strong unlike magnets poles are brought together in the motor. There exists a tremendous force of extraction between those two poles. In such a condition, the two magnets said to be magnetically locked. 
  • The stator and the rotor are two main parts of the synchronous motor. The stator is the stationary part of the motor while the rotor is their rotating part. The stator excited by the three-phase supply, and the rotor is excited by the DC supply. 
  • The term excitation means the magnetic field induces in the stator and rotor both of the motor. The main aim of the excitation is to convert the stator and rotor both into an electromagnet.

The three-phase supply induces both the north and south pole on the stator. The three-phase supply is sinusoidal. The polarity of their wave changes after every half cycle and because of this reason the north and south pole also varies. Thus the rotating magnetic filed develop on the stator.

The magnetic field develops on the rotor because of we have to apply DC supply. The polarity of the DC supply becomes fixed and no change in polarity, and thus the stationary magnetic field develops on the rotor. The term stationary means their north and south pole remain fixed.

Synchronous Motor
 Synchronous Motor

The speed at which the rotating magnetic field that rotates is known as the synchronous speed. The synchronous speed of the motor  N depends on the frequency of f the supply and the number of poles of P  the motor. 

Nₛ =  120f/P

f =  The supply frequency in Hz
P = The number of poles
N = synchronous speed in RPM

When the opposite pole of the stator and rotor face with each other, the force of attraction occurs between them. The attraction force develops the torque in the clockwise direction. The torque is the kind of force that moves the object in the rotation. Thus the poles of the rotor dragged towards the pole of the stator.

After every half cycle, the pole on the stator is reversed direction. The position of the rotor will remain the same because of some inertia. The inertia is the tendency of an object to remain fixed in one direction. When the pole of the stator and rotary face each other, the force of repulsion occurs between them and the torque develops in the clockwise direction.

Main features of synchronous motor:

  • Synchronous motor is inherently not self-starting. They require some external means to bring their speed close to synchronous speed before they are synchronized.
  • In constant supply frequency, they behave as constant speed motor irrespective of load condition.
  • This motor has the unique characteristics of operating under any electrical power factor. This makes it is used in electrical power factor improvement.
Application of synchronous motor:

  • Power factor correction 
  • Reciprocating pump
  • rolling mills
  • Voltage regulation
  • Constant speed
  • Constant load drives.

LM338 pinout | Introduction | Configuration | Features | Packages | Advantages | Application

As we know that there are available in various forms of 555 timers, single logic gates, microcontroller, microprocessor, voltage regulator and op-amps like different ICs IC  LM741, LM324 IC, LM339 IC, LM358, and many more ICs are available. Here we have to learn or introduce about  IC LM358 because it has low power and easy to use dual channel op-amp IC. This IC is designed especially to operate from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages. It is a good, standard operational amplifier and the most important point for this IC is suitable for your needs. LM358 IC is available in a small size as a chip. This IC is the most commonly used device due to its cost-efficiency. Let us have a deep insight into the introduction, pinout, configuration, features, packages, advantages, applications of LM358.

Introduction to LM338 Pinout:

LM338 is the adjustable DC power supply circuit, 1.2 V to 30 V. It ca e provide a current maximum to 5A ad 10 A. If you have used LM317 or LM350. There is similar and so easy to use with a few components. ut LM338 has a higher current than LM317.

Pin out LM338:

The LM338 are adjustable 3 terminal positive voltage regulators capable of supplying in excess of 5A over 1.2V to 32V output range.

They are exceptionally easy to use ad require only 2 resistors to set the output voltage.

The careful circuit design has resulted in outstanding load and line regulation comparable to many commercial power supplies. 

Features of LM338:

  • 5A output current.
  • 7A maximum output current.
  • Adjustable output 1.2V to 37V.
  • Line regulation typically 0.1%.
  • Thermal regulation.
  • Line regulation typically 0.005%/V.
  • The current limit is constant with temperature.
  • P+ product enhancement tested.
  • Output in short circuit protected.
  • The current limit is constant with temperature.
  • Adjustable power supply
  • Constant current regulator
  • Battery charger
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Difference Between Potentiometer and Voltmeter

The potentiometer ad the voltmeter both are the voltage measuring device. The main key difference is that the potentiometer measures the emf of the circuit while the voltmeter measures the end terminal voltage of the circuit device. so here this article gives the main key difference between potentiometer and voltmeter to better understand this topic.

What is potentiometer?

The potentiometer is the three-terminal devices used for measuring the unknown voltage source by comparing it with the known voltage. The standard source supplies the known voltage.

What is a voltmeter?

As we know, The voltmeter measures the voltages between any two points of an electrical circuit. The voltmeter has high iteral resistance because of which the meter draws a small current.

Difference between potentiometer and voltmeter:  

  • The sensitivity of the potentiometer is very high. It can measure a small potential difference between the two points. The voltmeter has low sensitivity.
  • The potentiometer is an instrument used for measuring the mainly of an emf, whereas the voltmeter is a type of meter which measures the terminal's voltage of the circuit.
  • The potentiometer uses the null deflection type instrument but the voltmeter uses the deflection type instrument.
  • The potentiometer has infinite iteral resistance, whereas the potentiometer has high measurable resistance.
  • The potentiometer accurately measures the potential difference because of it zero internal resistance. while the voltmeter has high iteral resistance which causes the error measurement. thus the voltmeter approximately measures the voltage.
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Difference between primary and secondary cell

battery or cell are referred to as the parallel combination of electrochemical cells. The major key difference between primary ad secondary cells is that primary cells are the ones that can not be charged but secondary cells are the ones that are rechargeable. So here this article gives the main key difference between primary cell ad secondary cells to better understand this topic.

What is the primary cell?

The primary cell has high-density ad get discharged slowly. Since there is no fluid inside these cells that they are also known as dry cells. The internal resistance is high also the chemical reaction is irreversible. It is the initial cost is cheap and also primary cells are easy to use.

What is a secondary cell?

Secondary cells have low energy density and also they are made of molten salts and wet cells. The internal resistance is low and its chemical reaction is reversible. It is initial to cost is high and is a little complicated to use when compared to the primary cell.

Difference between primary and secondary cell:

  • The primary cell has high energy ad slow in discharge and easy to use, while in secondary cells is smaller energy density.
  • The primary cell has a high internal resistance, the secondary cell has low internal resistance.
  • Primary cells are no fluids in the cells hence it is also cadry cells, while a secondary cell is made up of wet cells ad molten salt.
  • The primary cell has an irreversible chemical reaction, while secondary cells have a reversible chemical reaction.
  • Primary cell design is smaller and lighter, while secondary cell design is more complex and heavier.
  • Primary cell initial cost is cheap, but in secondary cell initial cost is high.

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