TMS full form

 What is the full form of TMS?


  • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

What does TMS mean?

TMS is a non-invasive technique that uses a wire coil held outside the head to produce a magnetic field. In adjacent brain areas, the magnetic field generates an electrical current. TMS was created as a method for mapping brain activity in the beginning. It appears to hold promise as a treatment for a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, especially major depression.

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  1. Full form of EEG

EEG full form

 What is the full form of EEG?


  • Electroencephalogram

What does EEG mean?

An EEG is a test that uses tiny metal discs attached to your scalp to detect electrical activity in your brain. One of the most common epilepsy diagnostic tests is an EEG. An EEG may also be used to diagnose other forms of brain disorders. Electrical impulses are used by the brain cells to communicate and keep them working all the time, even while you are sleeping.

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  1. Full form of TMS

SSR full form

 What is the full form of SSR?


  • Solid State Relay

What does SSR mean?

SSR is the relay that is a substitute for the electromagnetic relay. It referred to as an optocoupler due to its construction. It consists of a light source and a light sensor. This type of relay mainly used to provide isolation than switching high current. The output resistance remains totally constant even after they have multiple uses.

Solid state relay advantages and disadvantages

SSR stands for the solid-state relay, it is relay that is a substitute for the electromagnetic relay. It referred to as an optocoupler due to its construction. It consists of a light source and a light sensor. This type of relay mainly used to provide isolation than switching high current. So here this article gives the advantages and disadvantages of the solid-state relay to better understand this topic.

Advantages of the solid-state relay:

  • Solid-state relay has a very high lifetime.
  • It is insensitive to vibration.
  • It is smaller in size.
  • SSR offers to switch time than EMR.
  • The chance of noise pollution is almost negligible due to the absence of direct contact with moving parts.
  • The output resistance remains totally constant even after they have multiple uses.
  • It offers a very fast response usually about 1 microsecond ON and 0.5 microseconds OFF.
  • It is highly durable.
  • There is no coil in the design which can introduce back EMF  into the circuitry.
  • It shows less sensitivity towards external factors like shock, vibration and magnetic field, etc.
  • Some variants can work as low as 1.5 Voltage direct current(DC), unlike electromagnetic relay which requires at least 3V DC.
  • It offers low power consumption due to fewer current requirements.
  • As there is a complete internal separation between input and output terminals, it can be used to switch high voltages.
  • SSR offers long-run use as there is no contact moving parts thus less susceptible to wear and tear of the machinery.
Disadvantages of Solid-state relay:

  • It offers non-linear voltage-current characteristics.
  • Sometimes its output exhibits a polarity-sensitive nature.
  • Sometimes voltage transients result in spurious switching.
  • There is leakage current at the output even if the relay is in OFF mode.
  • For this, relay, the gate charging circuit there exists a requirement for the isolated bias supply.
  • It is a fixed value voltage drop on output due to internal impedance. Hence it is less efficient.
  • It cost is very high.
  • It generates waste heat during On mode. This is proportional to the voltage drop.
  • It is triggered by brief voltage spikes on the input side device, unlike the electromagnetic relay.
  • It is more vulnerable to surges and also they spikes in the current which is switched on the output side, unlike the EM relay.

Difference Between Analog and Digital Communication

The main key difference between analog and digital communication is that analog communication uses analog signals for transmission and reception of data while digital communication uses digital signals for transmitting and receiving data. 

What is analog communication?

analog communication the data is transferred with the help of an analog signal in between the transmitter and receiver. Any type of data is transferred in the analog signal. Any data is converted into electric form first and after that, it is passed through a communication channel. analog communication uses a continuous signal which varies in amplitude, phase, or some other property with time in proportion to that of a variable.

What is digital communication?

Digital communication is the one that uses digital signals for transmitting information between source and destination. Digital signals are represented by a square wave. This signal consists of discrete values rather than a continuous signal of values.

Difference between Analog and digital communication:

  • In analog communication, the analog signal is used for information transmission, while a digital communication digital signal is used for information transmission.
  • Analog communication signals use analog signals whose amplitude varies continuously from time from 0 to 100, while digital communication uses digital signals whose amplitude is of two levels either low level 0 or either high level 1.
  • Analog communication system gets affected by noise highly during transmission through a communication channel, while digital communication gets affected by totally noiseless during transmission through a communication channel.
  • In Analog communication only a few channels can be broadcasted simultaneously. While digital communication can broadcast a large number of channels simultaneously.
  • Analog communication noise immunity is poor, but digital communication noise immunity is good.
  • Analog communication coding is not possible, while digital communication coding is possible. Different coding techniques can be used to detect and correct some errors.
  • In Analog communication error probability is high, while the digital communication error probability is low.
  • Some synchronization problem is there in analog communication, while the digital communication synchronization problem is easier.
  • Analog communication systems are having complex hardware and less flexible, while digital communication is having less complex hardware and more flexible.
  • Analog communication separating noise and signal in analog communication is not possible, while digital communication separating out noise and signal in digital communication is possible.
  • Analog communication is less portable, while digital communication portability is high.
  • Analog communication system is a low cost, while the digital communication system is high cost.
  • Analog communication for multiplexing frequency division multiplexing is used, while the digital communication for multiplexing, while the digital communication for multiplexing time-division multiplexing is used.
  • Analog communication is required low bandwidth, while digital communication systems require high bandwidth.
  • Analog communication power consumption is high, while power consumption is low in digital communication.
  • Analog communication has no privacy is less so not highly secured, while digital communication privacy is high so it is highly secured.
  • Analog communication not assures an accurate data transmission, while digital communication assures a more accurate data transmission.

Difference between Online UPS and Offline UPS

UPS is the IT world and the short form of the uninterrupted power supply. These UPS is categorized into two types. One is online UPS and the other is offline UPS. In this article, we are going to discuss the main key difference between online UPS and offline UPS to better understand this topic.

What is Online UPS?

The online UPS consists of a rectifier, battery, and inverter in-line with AC mains and load. The AC power supplied to the online UPS is fed first to the rectifier circuit, then it will convert it into the DC power. The DC power is used to charge the battery and this DC power is supplied to the inverter and then it is supplied to load.

What are offline UPS?

The offline UPS directly supplies the AC power to the device connected to the load. In case of power failure, the offline UPS changes the position of the transfer switch, and then it connects the load to the battery backup path.

Difference between online UPS and offline UPS:

  • The online UPS supplies the AC power through a rectifier and inverter circuit even when the AC mains power is available, While offline UPS directly supply the AC mains power to the load circuit when the power supply is available.
  • The price of the online UPS is more than the offline UPS.
  • The efficiency of the offline UPS is more than the efficiency of the online UPS.
  • Online UPS and offline UPS is that the inverter in online UPS is ON all the time while inverter in offline UPS is on only when the power supply is unavailable.
  • The online UPS use it when a UPS for a longer duration of time and the main power supply fluctuates drastically, while in offline UPS use it when you are much concerned about the cost and when you wish a lower operating temperature.
  • The reliability when you use the UPS for a longer time, it renders unreliable service, while Offline UPS renders reliable service because of fewer parts used and the lesser operating temperature.
  • There is in the frequent high voltage fluctuation, where we need to install online UPS, while the offline UPS use it when you are much concerned about the cost and when you wish the use lower operating temperature
  • The transfer time is the key term that differentiates online UPS and offline UPS. The transfer time in the case of online UPS is zero as there is no switching between the inverter rectifier path and the mains supply path. While the offline UPS posses a transfer time of about 5ms.
  • Online UPS uses its battery throughout the time when the electronics device is in use. Therefore the battery is always used here. While the offline UPS is never using the battery until there is a power failure. Therefore the battery is rarely used.
  • High performance of online UPS while low performance in offline UPS.

Difference between Combinational and Sequential Logic Circuit

In digital electronics, both combinational circuits and sequential circuits are the most widely used circuits. These are two broad categories of circuits defined in digital electronics where one type of circuit is independent of time and the other is dependent on time. So here this article gives the main key difference between combinational circuits and sequential circuits.

What is a combinational circuit?

The combinational circuit is the type of circuit in which the output is independent of time and only relies on the input present at that particular instant.

What are sequential circuits?

Sequential circuits are the type of circuit where output not only relies on the current input but also depends on the previous output.

Difference between combinational circuit and sequential circuits:

  • The combinational circuit is easier to design, use and handle, while a sequential circuit is not easier to design, used, and handle than the combinational circuit.
  • In combinational circuit clock signal are not required and it is not dependent on time, while the sequential circuit clock signal is required and it is dependent on time and clock so need triggering.
  • In the combinational circuit, elementary building blocks are only logic gates, while the sequential circuit element building blocks are flip-flops.
  • Combinational circuits are faster logic circuits while sequential circuits are slower than combinational circuits.
  • Combinational circuits the output depends only upon the present input and there is no need for feedback for input and output. So, the memory element is not required, In a sequential circuit the output depends upon both present input and present state, so the memory element is required to save the feedback state.

Difference between Linear Supply and Switch Mode Power Supply

The linear power supply and the SMPS of the switch both supply electrical and electronic circuits with DC power, but the similarities end here. The working procedure is the crucial factor that distinguishes linear power and SMPS. The linear supply converts high voltage AC into the low voltage using a transformer and then converts it into DC voltage while the SMPS converts AC into DC first the transforms that DC voltage into desired voltage.

What is liner supply?

The Linear supply power supplying circuit which is used in electrical and electronics circuit to supply the DC power to the circuit. It consists of a step-down transformer, rectifier and filter circuit, regulator.

What is a Switch mode power supply?

The SMPS operated on the principle of switching using a MOSFET transistor. It consists of a rectifier circuit, filter circuit, chopper controller, and output transformer. 

 Difference between linear supply and switch-mode power supply:

  • Linear supply completes the stepping down of AC voltage first then it converts it into DC, while the SMPS is converted the input signal down the voltage up to the desired level.
  • Linear supply is low efficiency about 20-25%, but the SMPS is high efficiency about 60-65%.
  • Stalley or CRGO core is used for Linear supply while the SMPS used for magnetic materials used for ferrite.
  • Linear supply is bulky, while the SMPS is less bulky in comparison to the linear power supply.
  • Voltage regulation is done by voltage regulator in liner supply, while voltage regulation is done by a feedback circuit in SMPS.
  • Linear supply is complex than SMPS, while SMPS is more complex than linear supply.
  • Linear supply is more reliable in comparison to SMPS, while the SMPS reliability depends on the transistor used for switching.
  • No RF interference in linear supply, while the SMPS the RF shielding is required as switching produces more RF interference.
  • Linear supply is immune to noise and electromagnetic interference, while the SMPS effect noise ad electromagnetic interference is quite significant, thus EMI filters are required.
  • Linear supply used in audio frequency applications and RF applications, while the SMPS used in chargers of mobile phones, DC motors, etc.

Difference Between Zener and Avalanche Breakdown

Owing to two types of events such as Zener as well as an avalanche, an electrical takes place. The occurrence of their process due to the high electric field is the main key distinction between Zener breakdown and avalanche breakdown. The disparity between the breakdown of Zener and the breakdown of avalanches will assist us to understand the occurrence of their process.

What is a Zener breakdown?

As the elevated electric field is applied across the PN junction diode, the Zener breakdown takes place. This results in electron flow through the junction of the PN.

What is avalanche breakdown?

The avalanche breakdown occurs when the electric field is increased by a high reverse bias voltage, which increases the depletion area further.

Difference between Zener and avalanche breakdown:

  • Zener breakdown is a process in which the electron move across the barrier from the valence band of the p-type material to the conduction band of the n-type material is known as Zener breakdown. While the avalanche breakdown is the process of applying high voltage and increasing the free electrons or electric current in semiconductor and insulating materials is called an avalanche breakdown.
  • This is observed in Zener diodes having Zener breakdown voltage V of 5 to 8 volts, while the avalanche diode in Zener diode has a Zener breakdown voltage V is greater than 8 volts.
  • In the Zener diode, the VI characteristics of a Zener breakdown have a sharp curve, while the avalanche diode VI characteristics curve of the avalanche breakdown is not as sharp as the Zener breakdown.
  • While the use of Zener diode we decrease the temperature breakdown of the voltage, while the avalanche diode the increase in temperature increases the breakdown voltage.
  • Zener diode occurs that is highly doped, while the avalanche diode is lightly doped.
  • The valence electrons are pulled into conduction due to the high electric field in the narrow depletion region, while the avalanche diode the valance electrons are pushed to conduction due to the energy imparted by accelerated electrons, which is the gain their velocity due to their collision with other atoms.
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Difference between Centre Tapped and Bridge Rectifier

The main comparison between a center-tapped rectifier and a bridge rectifier is that one uses a center-tapped transformer while the other they do not require a center-tapped transformer. both of these types of full-wave rectifiers but their method of converting AC input into DC is different by employing a different number of diodes. So here this article gives the difference between center-tapped rectifier and bridge rectifier to better understand this topic.

What is a center-tapped rectifier?

 In this rectifier, the anodes of the diode are connected with a center-tapped secondary winding, and the cathodes of the diode are connected with the load resistor. Thus it is called a center-tapped rectifier. In this diode firstly it converts one-half of the AC cycle into DC voltage and then it converts another half of the AC cycle into DC voltage.

What is a bridge rectifier?

The bridge rectifier converts the complete cycle of AC into pulsating DC, but it is conversion manner is different from the center-tapped rectifier. In this rectifier, all four diodes are connected in the form of a Wheatstone bridge.

Difference between center-tapped rectifier and bridge rectifier:

  • The Center tapped rectifier as its name suggests is center-tapped, its secondary winding is center-tapped. While there is no center tapping in the case of the bridge rectifier.
  • The Center tapped rectifier uses only two diodes while the bridge rectifier uses four diodes in its circuit.
  • The magnitude of peak inverse voltage of the bridge rectifier is half of that of the center-tapped rectifier. These features of the bridge rectifier make it appropriate for high voltage applications.
  • The transformer utilization factor is 0.692 in the center-tapped rectifier, while 0.812 in the bridge rectifier.
  • Circuit complexity is less in the Center tapped rectifier, while circuit complexity is more in the bridge rectifier.
  • The voltage drop is low in the Center tapped rectifier, while the bridge rectifier voltage drop is high due to the presence of four diodes.
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Difference Between Pressure and Stress

There are several key distinctions between stress and pressure, but these are also terms that are often mistaken for each other. Pressure may primarily be defined as the amount of force per unit area exerted. Stress refers to materials amount of force exerted per unit area, This is a term as stress is uniquely more different from pressure.

What is pressure?

The pressure is an inherent property, and it is often fluid-related. It depends on the transfer of momentum on a micro-scale between the atoms of a liquid or gas volume.

What is stress?

Stress is a consequence of the property of a body undergoing arbitrary deformation to return to its own reference state, stress is produced whenever a force is generated to simplify.

Difference between Pressure and stress:

  • Pressure can be defined as the amount of force per unit area applied While stress can be defined as the internal resistive force to the deformation per unit area.
  • In pressure stress is developed internally, while stress, the pressure is exerted externally, 
  • Due to pressure, stress will be developed. While due to stress, the pressure will not be developed.
  • The pressure is physically measured using pressure gauges, a manometer, and other pressure measuring devices or instruments, while the stress is no device to measure stress. stress is calculated by measuring strain or elongation.
  • The pressure is always a positive force, while stress can be either positive or a negative force.
  • The pressure is always compressive, while the stress is tensile, compressive, and also shear.
  • The pressure is a unique property of thermodynamics or physics, while stress can be represented as strain/ youngs modulus.
  • The magnitude of the pressure at a point in all the directions remains the same,  The magnitude of stress at a point in a different direction is different.
  • The pressure is independent of the area of the contact surface area. It remains constant and does not vary with change in surface area, while the stress varies with change in surface area.
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AWG full form

 What is the full form of AWG?


  • American Wire Gauge

What does AWG mean?

AWG is the system, also known as the brown and sharp wire gauge, is a logarithmic stepped standardized wire gauge system used since 1857, predominantly in North America, for the diameter of round, solid, electrically conducting wire. The dimension of the wire is given in ASTM standard B 258. 

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ONGC full form

 What is the full form of ONGC?


  • Oil And Natural Gas Corporation

What does ONGC mean?

The ONGC is an Indian crude oil and gas multinational corporation and its head office located in New Delhi, India. The ONGC is a public sector project which is under the administrative control of the government of India's ministry of petroleum and natural gas. In the year of 1994, ONGC was reconfigured as a limited enterprise under the company act, 1956.

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  1. Full form of NTPC

NTPC full form

What is the full form of NTPC?


  • National Thermal Power corporation

What does NTPC mean?

NTPC is a public sector company in India, headquartered in New Delhi. It was set up to accelerate power generation in the country. It is the largest thermal power generating company in India in terms of installed capacity and output. NTPC is also listed on NSE and the Bombay stock exchange.

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  1. Full form of NTC
  2. Full form of ONGC
  3. Full form of  PTCL

NTC full form

 What is the full form of NTC?


  • Negative Temperature Coefficient

What does NTC mean?

NTC is a characteristic of a material for which resistance, length, and some other characteristic of a material decrease with the increasing of temperature. The conductive material has a positive temperature coefficient. Resistance increase with the increases in temperature. But in the case of semiconductor material resistance decrease with the increases of the temperature due to negative temperature coefficient characteristic.

Full form of PTCL

What is the full form of PTCL?


  • Pakistan Telecommunication Company Ltd.

What does PTCL mean?

PTCL is one of the national telecommunication companies in Pakistan. PTCL provides telephone and internet services nationwide. It is the backbone for the country's telecommunication infrastructure despite the arrival of a dozen other telecommunication corporations, including Telenor GSM technology and china mobile. The corporation manages and operates around 2000 and many more telephone exchanges across the country, and it provides the largest fixed-line network.

Face recognition advantages and disadvantages

Facial recognition technology is a normal part of everyday life now. Whether it is a surveillance camera in grocery stores, tagging friends on social media, or logging into our smartphones, facial recognition is here to stay. In recent years facial recognition one of the most important technology in biometric. So here this gives the information about the advantages and disadvantages of face recognition technology to better understand this topic.

Advantages of face recognition:

  • Nowadays there are many advantages of face recognition systems such as their convenience and social acceptability. All you need is your picture taken for it to work.
  • Face recognition is easy to use and in any case, it can be performed without a person even knowing.
  • The camera price should go down.
  • This system is convenient.
  • Face recognition is more user-friendly.
  • It is in inexpensive techniques of identification.
  • Social acceptability.
  • Facial recognition may be a good measure to avoid the spread of diseases.
  • It can be used to unlock devices.
  • Machine learning and AI will help to improve and expand facial recognition.
  • Harder to hide from criminals.
  • It May help to identify a fake passport.
  • Can prevent all kinds of fraud.
  • May help to protect improtant infrastrucutre

Disadvantages of face recognition:

  • The face recognition system can't tell the difference between identical twins.
  • Affected by the environment.
  • Facial recognition can be expensive.
  • Privacy concerns related to facial recognition.
  • High false o match range.
  • Technology is not mature yet.
  • Can take away freedom and fun from people.
  • Potential for primary abuse.
  • Can be misused by the government.
  • Rules and regulations against facial recognition in some regions.
  • problem with false rejection when people change their hairstyles.
  • Sensitive data may get stolen by hackers.
  • Lack of regulations in the AI in face recognition systems.
  • Facial recognition can lead to higher unemployment rates.
  • The general public may not accept this technology.
  • Excessive reliance on facial recognition can be dangerous.
  • Storage of data can be problematic.
  • The general public may not accept this technology.

APFC full form

 What is the full form of APFC?


  • Automatic Power Factor Control

What does APFC mean?

APFC is panels are mainly used for the improvement of the power factor. Power factor is the ratio of the active power to apparent power and it is a major component in measuring electrical consumption. APFC is an automatic power factor control panel that is used to improve the power factor, whenever required by switching ON and OFF the required capacitor bank units automatically.

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  1. Full form of AAAC


AAAC full form

 What is the full form of AAAC?


  • All Aluminium Alloy Conductor

What does AAAC mean?

AAAC is extensively used for primary and secondary transmission lines in bare overhead distribution and transmission lines and also from the HV substations. It usable in highly polluted industrial areas and coastal regions due to corrosion resistance.

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  1. Full form of APFC

clientserver network advantages and disadvantages

A client-server network is such a model where one side server machine delivers the various service to the other side client machine for grabbing those services. So this type of model is known as client-server networking. so here this article gives the information about the advantages and disadvantages of client-server to better understand this topic.

Advantages of the client-server network:

  • All files are stored in a central location.
  • Network peripheral are controlled centrally.
  • Backup and network security are controlled centrally.
  • User can access data which is centrally controlled.
  • It can be scaled that means as per the requirement its size can be expanded.
  • All users also have the right to access entire shard files which are stored centrally.
  • It allows users to share all resources on other different platforms and locations.
  • Users are able to access all data anytime and anywhere, so you have not placed a foundation.
  • It is capable to bear massive usage.
  • It allows all users to decrease the data replication for their applications.
  • The client-server network has the best management to keep all records of entire files, so all users can find any files easily.
  • The client-server network is designed on the basis of the distributed model that means to replace, repair any updating, and relocate the server without affecting the client.

Disadvantages of the client-server network:

  • The server is expensive to purchase.
  • A specialist network operating system is needed.
  • Specialist staff such as a network manager is needed.
  • Its cost is not affordable for normal users.
  • If a large number try to send requests at the same time frame then a traffic congestion problem can be created.
  • If any part of the network server fails a lot of disruption can occur.
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