Advantages and disadvantages of monolithic ics

 The word monolithic is derived from the word Greek monos, meaning means a single, and lithos, meaning stone. Thus the monolithic circuit is built into a single stone or single crystal in using the monolithic ICs, and all circuit components and their interconnection are formed. So here this article gives the main key advantages ad disadvantages of monolithic IC to better understand this topic.

Advantages of Monolithic IC:

  • Miniature to the small in size. The IC becomes a lot smaller, when compared to the discrete circuit, it may be at least a thousand times smaller.
  • All IC is tested for operating ranges in very low and very high temperatures.
  • It Improved the functional performance of the more complex circuits. It can be fabricated for achieving better characteristics.
  • Due to its small size, the weight of the IC also reduces when compared to the discrete circuit.
  • The small size of IC causes lesser power consumption and lesser power loss.
  • All components are fabricated inside the using chip, so there will not be any external projection ratings.
  • All the components are fabricated is very close to each other in an Integrated circuit, they are highly suitable for small-signal operation of a device, as there won't be any stray electrical pickup. 
  • The PCB consisting of soldered joins will be less reliable. This problem is omitted in IC because of no soldered joints, with fewer interconnections and thus highly reliable.
  • As the IC is produced in bulk the temperature coefficients &  some other parameters will be closely matching.
  • Increased operating speed because of the absence of parasitic capacitance effect.

Disadvantages of monolithic ICs:

  • Low-power
  • Poor isolation between components.
  • NO possibility of fabrication of inductors.
  • A small range of values of passive components used in the ICs.
  • In this IC's there is lack of flexibility in circuit design as for making any variation in the circuit, a new set of masks is required.

EPLD full form

 What is the full form of EPLD?


  • Electrically Programmable Logic Device

What does EPLD mean?

EPLD is a type of  PLD with an array of initially unconnected programmable logic devices. This type of PLD needs its array of logic devices to be configured or programmed by the user electrically. PLD is used to build a reconfigurable device that can be used in a variety of applications depending on their programming.

CPLD applications

 What are the Applications of CPLD?

  • CPLD is ideal for high performance, critical control applications.
  • CPLD can be used in digital design to perform the functions of the boot loader.
  • It is used in small design applications like address decoding.
  • This is used for loading the configuration data of a field-programmable gate array from non-volatile memory.
  • It is used to manage power-up sequencing and monitoring of other devices on the board.
  • CPLD is frequently used in many applications like in cost-sensitive, battery-operated portable devices due to its size and usage of low power.

programmable array logic applications

 What are the applications of PAL?

  • PAL is the most commonly used type of PLA
  • Counter 
  • State machine
  • Decoder
  • Synchronization
  • Bus Interfaces
  • Parallel to serial
  • Serial to parallel
  • Glue logic
  • Combinational logic circuit

Programmable logic array applications

 What is the application of PLA?

  • Counter 
  • State machine
  • Decoder
  • Synchronization
  • Bus Interfaces
  • Parallel to serial
  • Serial to parallel
  • Glue logic
  • Combinational logic circuit

Full form of IEEE

 What is the full form of IEEE?


  • Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

What does IEEE mean?

IEEE is a non-profit organization of engineering professionals, consist of engineers and students. IEEE is best known for developing standards for the computer science and electronics industry. IEEE platform also arranges and manages conferences and offers a platform for publication of research and works. IEEE contains 1000 employees to assist in its activities.

Full form of IDE

 What is the full form of IDE?


  • Integrated Development Environment

What does IDE mean?

IDE is a programming environment that contains a lot of things in a single package. It is actually a software application that provides comprehensive facilities to computer programmers for use of software development. IDE combines all the basic tools that developers need to write or test software. 

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  1. Full form of SCSI

Advantages and disadvantages of SATA

The SATA stand called serial advanced technology attachment. It is also called a serial ATA. It is a form of bus connections which your computer requires to attach various main storage drives like the hard drive or the called SSD, to the motherboard present in it. So here this article gives the main key advantages ad disadvantages of SATA to better understand this topic.

Advantages of SATA:

  • SATA bus interface provides better speed than the compare of PATA form of storage.
  • More speed is allowed by a better bandwidth, Hence you can expect good speed as this bandwidth is not shared in SATA.
  • The wires used in SATA are too much longer than those used in PATA, and hence there is general flexibility.
  • SATA drives allow the user to remove drives from the programming computer without the need to shut it down. This is a very important advantage one gets.
  • There are multiple SATA connections on a motherboard device, Hence you get to use many drives at the same time.
  • The SATA interface requires thinner wire and is thus it is less complicated.
  • In this sort of connectivity, there is a separate cable for each of the drives. When multiple drives are used, The connections are not shared. Thus there are no problems regarding speed.
  • The PATA drive used to draw a lot of power while the SATA interface is energy efficient. This is why they can be widely used in portable computers like laptops ad other portable devices.
Disadvantages of SATA:
  • The SATA is slower than the other form of storage interface. For instance, the data speed on an Nv Me SSD is about 16 GB/s while it is restricted to 600 MB/s on a SATA SSD.
  • Every SATA drive needs some of an individual port on the motherboard. Although you can increase the number of ports on the motherboard remains the same. 
  • SATA has an overall lower bandwidth and even the early standard of PCLE have more bandwidth than it.
  • Each SATA drive requires its cables and hence you need more cables for connecting more drives. It might be a problem for workstations and those who need to use multiple storage devices on their computer.
  • The PATA and other called IDE connections could be used in most older devices, while only newer computers have SATA support. This is not a very serious issue but it is still a con that SATA  support deivce. This is not a very serious issue but it is still a con that SATA has to bear.

Difference between SATA and PATA

SATA stands for Serial ATA, while PATA stands for parallel ATA. They both are referred to two different ways of encoding transporting the data electronically. The data transfer speed of SATA is higher than PATA. So here this article gives the main key difference between SATA and PATA to better understand this topic.

Definition of PATA:

PATA is a bus interface used for connecting secondary storage devices like hard disks, optical drives, etc. It was first introduced in the year 1986 by western digital and compact. It was later replaced by SATA.

Definition of SATA:

SATA is a bus interface that connects hard disk, optical drives. SATA was introduced in 2001 after PATA was slowly declining its demand by serial ATA working group. SATA has more benefits than PATA making its demand more.

Difference between  SATA ad PATA:

  • PATA acronyms for parallel advanced technology attachment, SATA stands for serial advanced technology attachment.
  • PATA is outdated technology while SATA is a new advanced technology and currently in use.
  • SATA rapidly transfer data as compared to PATA technology, which is very slow.
  • PATA enables extra interfacing while it is not the case in SATA.
  • The various versions of SATA provide up to 600 Mb/s of a rate while PATA can offer speed at a maximum of 133 Mb/s
  • When it comes to the size of the cable, PATA cables are bigger than SATA cables.
  • The cable pins require for PATA is 40, while the SATA requires 7 cable pins.
  • Power connector pins for PATA is 4, while the SATA requires 15 power connector pins.
  • Power consumption is more for PATA, while the SATA power consumption comparatively very less.
  • The cable length is 36 inches in PATA, while the SATA length 40 inches.
  • In PATA jumper setting available, while SATA does not require a jumper setting.
  • Device per cable for PATA is 2, whereas SATA needs device per cable is 1.
  • Power consumption is 5 V, while the SATA power consumption is 250mV only.
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Full form of PATA

 What is the full form of  PATA?


  • Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment

What does PATA mean?

PATA is motherboard has many components in it. Each component has its own functionality. There are cables used for different purposes in a motherboard and PATA is one of the advanced technology. PATA is also an advanced technology attachment is a bus interface used for connecting secondary storage devices like hard disks, optical drives to the computer system. The functionality of PATA is to used to transfer the data.

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  1. Full form of SATA
  2. Full form of ATA

Full form of SATA

 What is the full form of SATA?


  • Serial Advanced Technology Attachment

What does SATA mean?

SATA is an interface used to connect the mass storage device to the motherboard of a computer. SATA is also called a serial ATA, an interface for transferring data between a computer's central circuit board and storage devices. The very first version of SATA 1.0 is released in August. It is a replacement for PATA  and is much better in use. 

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Difference between packet switching and message switching

What is packet switching?

This method of grouping data that is transmitted over a digital network into packets. It is a connection before the transmission starts. In this method, before the message is transmitted, it is basically divided into some manageable parts known as the packets.

What is Message switching?

In this method, the entire message is transmitted without any break from one node to another. It firstly stores and then forwards information that requires more time. Due to this, the access time is increased. No direct link is present between the sender and receiver.

Difference between packet switching and message switching:

  • A complete message is passed across a network, while Packet switching is a method of grouping data that is transmitted over a digital network into the packet.  Packet switching is broken into smaller units knows as packets.
  • Packet switching is Binary type is used, while message switching is a computer language used is ASCII, Baudot, morse.
  • Message switching message exists only in one location in the network,  in the packet switching method, the message is received out of order and is assembled at the destination. It does not need a dedicated path from the source to the destination.
  • Packet switching places a tight upper limit on block size, Message switching there is no limit on block size.
  • In packet switching virtual links are made simultaneously, while the message switching physical links are allocated dynamically.
  • Packet switching the packet is stored in main memory, while the message switching access time is reduced due to an increase in performance as packets are stored in the disk.
We hope that you have got a better understanding of this topic. Furthermore, any queries regarding this concept or some electrical-electronics projects give your feedback in the comment section below. 

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Difference between HTTP and WWW

What is HTTP?

HTTP is the most popular protocol in use today. It is the communication standard used y your web browser in order to communicate with the server of the website that you are viewing. 

What is WWW?

WWW is also called the web and it is a catalog of an order of all websites connected to the worldwide internet. It is an information system in which linked hypertext data and resources are accessed over the internet. Using a web browser, a user can access a web page and a user can navigate between the web page using hyperlinks where images, texts, data, other multimedia data. The content can be carried on a website page.

Difference between HTTP and WWW:

  • HTTP is the protocol that is used to transfer data to and from the website.
  • WWW is the identifier that indicates that it is a web site and it is using the HTTP protocol.
  • Any prefix that is not reserved for a protocol, it can be used as a subdomain.
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EIDE full form

 What is the full form of EIDE?


  • Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics

What does EIDE mean?

EIDE is an improved version of the called integrated drive electronics(IDE) drive interface that provides faster data transfer rates than the original standard. While the original IDE drive controller supported transfer rates of 8.3 Mbps while the EIDE can transfer data up to 16.6 Mbps, which almost twice as fast. The EIDE can be ambiguous since it technically refers to an ATA standard known as ATA-2 or fast ATA standard. So, the EIDE ATA-2 and fast ATA may be used synonymously.

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Difference between HTTP and HTTPS

In the address bar of the browser, have you noticed for either http:// or https:// at the time of browsing the websites? If neither of these is present then most likely, it's  called http://. In short, both of these are protocols using which the information of a particular website is an exchange between the web server and web browser. it major difference between them. So here this article gives the main key difference between HTTP and HTTPS to better understand this topic. 

What is HTTP?

HTTP  is a protocol, it is prescribed order and syntax for presenting information, which is used for transferring data over a network. Most information that is sent over the internet, including the website content calls and some data, uses the HTTP protocol. basically, there are two main kinds of HTTP messages: requests and responses.

What is HTTPS?

HTTPS is a highly advanced ad secure version of HTTP. HTTPS uses TCS to encrypt HTTP requests and responses. HTTPS is still slightly different, more secure, and more advanced. It provides encrypted secure identification of a network server.

Difference between HTTP and HTTPS:

  • HTTP stands for hypertext transfer protocol, while HTTPS  hypertext transfer protocol secure.
  • HTTP URL in your browser address as is http:// while the HTTPS URL is https://.
  • HTTP sends the data over port 80 while HTTPS uses port 443.
  • HTTP is unsecured while HTTPS is secured.
  • no encryption in HTTP, HTTPS the data is encrypted before sending.
  • HTTP operates at application layers while HTTPS operates at the transport layer.
  • no SSL certificate is required for HTTP, with HTTPS it is required that you have an SSL certificate and it is signed by a CA.
  • HTTP is fast as compared to HTTPS because consumes computation power to encrypt the communication channel.
  • HTTP doesn't require domain validation whereas HTTPS requires at least domain validation and certain certificate even require legal document validation.
  • HTTP transfers data in plain text while HTTPS transfers data in ciphertext called encrypt text.
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SCSI full form

 What is the full form of SCSI?


  • Small Computer System Interface

What does SCSI mean?

SCSI is a set of American national standard institute, standard electronic interfaces that allow personal computers to communicate with peripheral hardware such as some device like disk devices, tape drives, CD ROM drives, printers ad scanners faster and with more flexibility than previous parallel data transfer interfaces.

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ATA full form

 What is the full form of ATA?


  • Advanced Technology Attachment

What does ATA mean?

ATA is a type of disk drive that integrates the drive controller directly on the drive itself. Computers can use ATA hard drives without a specific controller to support the drive.  The motherboard must still support an ATA connection, but a separate card is not needed.

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Difference between HTTP and SMTP

SMTP and HTTP are both network-layer protocols that are used to transfer the information between the hosts. HTTP is used to transfer data from a web server to a web client while SMTP is used to transfer emails between mail servers. So here this article gives the main key difference between SMTP and HTTP to better understand this topic. 

What is HTTP?

HTTP stands for hypertext transfer protocol,, HTTP is the backbone of the world wide web. It defies the format of message through which web browsers and web servers communicate, which also defines how a web browser should respond to a particular web browser request.

What is SMTP?

SMTP stands for simple mail transfer protocol. This type of protocol allows applications to transmit email messages over the internet device. SMTP handles your own outgoing mail. Your email application connected to your mail server via using the SMTP and it sends the message.

Difference between SMTP and HTTP:

  • HTTP stand for hyper text trasfer protocol, SMTP stand for simpal mail trasfer protocol.
  • HTTP is a pull protocol, a client pulls the information available o a server by initiating a TCP connection. SMTP is a push protocol, the sending mail server pushes the data onto the receiving mail server by initiating a TCP connection.
  • SMTP uses a persistent connection,  HTTP can use both a persistent and non-persistent connection.
  • HTTP uses port 80, SMTP uses port 25.
  • HTTP does not require data to be encoded in 7 bit ASCII, SMTP requires binary multimedia data to be encoded ib 7 bit ASCII.
  • HTTP places each object its own HTTP message, SMTP place all the objects into a single message.
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SFTP full form

 What is the full form of SFTP?


  • Secure File Transfer Protocol

What does SFTP mean?

SFTP is a part of the SSH protocol for the suite. It provides secure file transfer over SSH provides access to all shell accounts on the remote SFTP for server use. SFTP will verify the identity of the client and once a secured connection with the established information is exchanged. SFTP supports file access systems, file transfer, and file management functionalities without command or data channels.

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Difference between FTP and SFTP

FTP is a protocol that is used to transfer or copies the file from one host to another host. ut there may e some problems like different file names ad different file directories while sending ad receiving a file in different hosts or systems. While SMTP is the protocol that provides the secure channel, to transfer or copies the file from one host to other hosts or systems. SFTP establishes the control connection under SSH protocol and it is used in port number 22.

Definition of FTP:

FTP is an application layer protocol. FTP is a mechanism provided by TCP/IP for transferring the file from client to server or same as from the server to the client.  The issues resolved y FTP are, like two systems between whom the file is being exchanged may use different file conversion or different ways to represent text and data or a different directory structure. To resolve this problem FTP has a list of commands.

Definition of SFTP:

SFTP is a part of the SSH protocol for the suite. It provides secure file transfer over SSH provides access to all shell accounts on the remote SFTP for server use. SFTP verifies the identity of the client ad once a secured connection is established information is exchanged.

Difference between FTP ad SFTP:

  • FTP stands for file transfer protocol, while SFTP stands for secure file transfer protocol.
  • FTP protocol is a service provided by TCP/IP protocol but the SFTP protocol is a part of the SSH protocol which is remote login information.
  • FTP transfer the password and the data in plain text format whereas, SFTP encrypts the data before sending it to another host.
  • FTP has a direct transfer method whereas SFTP has a tunneling transfer method.
  • FTP does not provide any secure channel to transfer the file between the hosts whereas the SFTP protocol provides secure channels for transferring the files between the hosts on the network.
  • FTP doesn't provide encryption while SFTP provides encryption for sending the data.
  • FTP makes a connection using a control connection on TCP port 21. While the SFTP transfer the file under the secure connection established by SSH protocol between client and server. SFTP allows incoming collection on port 22.
  • FTP uses two channels to transfer data while SFTP usage one channel to transfer data.
  • FTP uses client-server architecture while SFTP uses SSH architecture.
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