RTD application

Here this some application of RTD listed below:

Automotive:
  • Automatic climate control
  • Audio amplifier
  • Emission control
  • Home weather stations
  • Coolant sensors
  • Electric coolant fan temperature control
  • Engine block temperature sensors
  • Engine oil temperature sensors
  • Oil level sensors
  • Transmission oil temperature sensors
  • Outside air temperature sensor
  • Water level sensors
  • Intake air temperature sensors
Computer:
  • Power supplies 
  • UPS system
Communication and Instrumentation:
  • Cellular telephones
  • Amplifier over temperature sensing
  • Copper coil winding temperature compensation
  • Oscillator temperature compensation
  • Rechargeable battery packs
  • Transistor gain stabilization
  • Transistor temperature compensation
Consumer electronics:
  • Toasters
  • Pool and spa  control
  • Oven temperature control
  • Rechargeable battery packs
  • Small appliance control
  • Thermostats
  • Fire detectors
  • Clothes dryers
  • Cellular telephones
  • Air conditioners
  • Washing machines
  • Refrigeable battery packs
  • Electric water heaters
  • Electric thermometers
  • Electric blanket controls
  • Computer power supplies
  • Dishwasher
Food handling and processing:
  • Coffee makers
  • Deep fryers
  • Fast food processing
  • Perishable shipping
  • Thermometers for  use in food preparation
  • Temperature controlled food storage systems 
Industrial electronics:
  • Crystal ovens
  • Commercial vending machines
  • Gas flow indicators
  • Fluid flow measurement 
  • Industrial process controls
  • HVAC equipment
  • Solar energy equipment
  • Microwave power measurement
  • Photographic processing 
  • Industrial process controls
  • Liquid level indicators
  • Welding equipment
  • Water purification equipment
  • Thermostats
  • Thermoplastic molding equipment
  • Thermocouple conductivity measurement
  • Thermocouple compensation
Medical electronics:
  • Blood analysis equipment
  • Blood dialysis equipment
  • Blood oxygenator equipment
  • Infant incubators
  • Esophageal tubes
  • Skin temperature monitors
  • Myocardial probes
  • Intravenous injection temperature regulator
  • Respiration rate measurement equipment
  • Internal temperature sensors
Military and Aerospace:
  • Aircraft temperature
  • Baththermography
  • Fire control equipment
  • Satellites
  • Missiles and spacecraft temperature 
  • Physiological monitoring

Thermistor application

A thermistor is a special type of one resistor that uses sensors to help regulate cold and heat. Thermistor uses many devices like voltage regulation, voltage control, time delays, and circuit protection. Here this post gives the various application of thermistor listed below.

The thermistor has a various application listed below:
  • A thermistor is used in the control devices actuated by temperature
  • It is used the measurement of flow
  • It is used for the measurement of high-frequency power
  • It measures the composition of gases
  • It is used to measures the vacuum and provides the time delays
  • It is used in automatic temperature controllers
  • It is widely used in temperature measurement
  • The thermistor measures the thermal conductivity
  • It is also used for biasing and compensating circuit of a transistor
  • In electronics circuit used for the temperature compensation
  • The thermistor measures the pressure of a liquid
  • It is used for a current limiting device for circuit protection as a replacement for the fuse
  • Used for the measurement of RF power
  • It is also used for the temperature sensor without or with compensation
  • Thermistor used in the measuring temperature distribution on a temperature gradient
  • Used for the thermal relay circuits and time delay circuit
  • It is used in the control devices actuated by temperature
Some uses of thermistors :
  • Household application
  • Circuit protection
  • Rechargeable batteries
  • Digital thermometers
  • temperature compensation
  • Wheatstone bridge circuits
  • Measure thermal conductivity of electrical materials

Thermistor advantages and disadvantages

Most of the thermistor is behave like a resistor with a high negative temperature coefficient. AT  that time resistance decreases with the increases in temperature. So this property of thermistor enables to thermistor to detect very small changes in temperature as compared to RTD or thermocouple. So here this post gives the advantages and disadvantages of the thermistor to better understand this topic.

Advantages of thermistor:
  • It is a small size
  • Highly sensitive allows them to work well over a small temperature range
  • They are more sensitive than other temperature sensors
  • Easy to use
  • They are fast in operation
  • It has good sensitivity in NTC region
  • Fast response over the narrow temperature range
  • Cost is low
  • Very responsive to changes in temperature
  • High accurate
  • Repeatable
  • It does not require contact and leads resistance problem not occurred due to large resistance
  • Options for customization
  • Easily interfaced to electronics instrumentation
  • it requires a standard two-wire connection system means they are compatible with many devices
Disadvantages of thermistor:
  • Thermistor need for shielding power lines
  • Extremely non-linear
  • Passive
  • The thermistor is not suitable for a large temperature range
  • The resistance temperature characteristics are nonlinear
  • Narrow working temperature range compared to other sensors such as RTD and thermocouple
  • More fragile as they are semiconductor devices
  • Susceptible to self-heating errors
  • The excitation for large temperature range
You have also read:

RTD full form

What is the full form of RTD?

  • Resistance Temperature Detectors

What does RTD mean?

RTD is a sensor that sometimes measures temperature by correlating the resistance of the RTD element with temperature. RTD are sometimes referred to generally as a resistance thermometer. Most of RTD elements consist of a length of fine coiled wire wrapped around a ceramic or glass core.  The relationship between as RTD resistance and this surrounding temperature is highly predictable, allowing for accurate and consistent the resulting voltages drop across the resistor, the RTD resistance can be calculated and the temperature can be determined.

RTD advantages and disadvantages

RTD stands for resistance temperature detectors, it is used to measure temperature. RTD is generally high repeatability, good precision, Accurate, and repeatability compared to a thermocouple. So here this post gives information about the advantages and disadvantages of RTD to better understand this topic.

Advantages of RTD:
  • Very stable output
  • Most accurate
  • Linear and predictable
  • High accuracy
  • High repeatability
  • Good precision
  • Low Drift 
  • More linearity compare to a thermocouple
  • No special wire required for installation, easily install and update
  • It is available for in wide range
  • It can be used to measure differential temperature
  • No necessity of temperature compensation
  • Stability maintained over a long period of time
  • They are suitable for remote indication
  • Easy to verify and recalibrate
  • RTD does not require a special extension cable
Disadvantages of RTD:
  • High initial cost
  • Low sensitivity 
  • It requires a more complex measurement circuit
  • Large bulb size
  • Low absolute resistance
  • Current source needed
  • Less rugged in high vibration environment
  • A bridge circuit is needed with power supply
  • Shock and vibrations affect the reading
  • Point sensing is not possible
  • A circuit is little more complicated as it 34/4 wire measurement
  • Costlier as compared to other sensors like thermocouples
  • Slower response time than a thermocouple
  • More limited temperature range
  • Possibility of self-heating
  • Power supply failure can cause an erroneous reading
  • It can be avoided in industries for ranges above 650 deg. C
  • The RTD requires more complex measurement circuit

Thermocouple advantages and disadvantages

In temperature measurement, the thermocouple term is common and is mainly used in thermometer as the sensor of temperature measurement. The ability of thermocouple who can measure very high until the very low temperature is the main reason why so many industries applying it. This article has given the benefits and drawback of the thermocouple to better understand this topic.

Advantages or benefits of thermocouple:
  • Very wide temperature range about -200oC to +2500oC
  • Fast response time
  • They are a simple construction
  • Low initial cost
  • Durable
  • Easy to read has a clear screen and good scale
  • Quick response for any temperature changes
  • Precision accuracy in temperature measurement
  • It is not easily broken good durability
  • Good to be used temperature variation measurement with below 1 cm distance range
  • Available in small sheath sizes
  • Not required bridge circuit
  • Good accuracy
  • Does not required bridge circuit
  • Good reproducibility
  • High-speed response
  • They are rugged
  • They are a self-power active device
Disadvantages  or drawback of thermocouple:
  • Not as stable as RTD
  • Recalibration is difficult
  • More susceptible to RFI/EMI
  • They are nonlinear
  • It is used for only temperature measurement only
  • They have a low output voltage
  • Less sensitivity
  • They require a reference for operation
    The stray voltage pick up is possible
  • As output voltage is very small so it needs amplification
  • Decreased accuracy comparing to RTD
  • Difficult to verify
  • Require expensive TC wire from the sensor to recording device
  • The cold junction and lead compensation is essential

LVDT applications

LVDT is a displacement sensor and many other physical quantities can be sensed by converting the displacement to the desired quantity via thoughtful arrangements. It also used to convert mechanical motion or vibrations into a variable electrical current, voltage or electric signals specifically rectilinear motion. So, they are used in a wide variety of applications, from pill making machines to measuring the thickness of dollar bills in ATM machines. 

Applications of LVDT :

  • LVDT is used to measure the weight as a secondary transducer, this transducer can also work as a secondary transducer.
  • LVDT is used in industries as well as servomechanisms.
  • It can be used testing of soil strength.
  • It can used robotics cleaner.
  • Brain probing medical device.
  • Craft shaft balancer.
  • Final product infection ( checking dimension ).
  • Electronics dial indicator.
  • PILL making machine.
  • Natural gas fuel valve position for a gas turbine for throttle control.
  • Feed water boiler pump valve positioning.
  • Dollar bill thickness in ATM machines.
  • LVDT is sensor works as the main transducer and that changes dislocation to an electrical signal straight.
  • It is also used in hydraulic cylinder displacement. 
  • It can be used for displacement ranging from the fraction of mm to few cms.
  • Some of these transducers are used to calculate the pressure and load and force.
  • The other application like power turbines, automotive suspension control, hydraulics, automation, aircraft, and satellites.