Differences Between Velocity and Acceleration

The key difference between velocity and acceleration is that velocity defines the rate with which an object varies its position. While acceleration is defined as the with which velocity of the object changes during motion.

The main key difference between velocity and acceleration are listed below:

  • Velocity implies the speed of an object in the given direction, while Acceleration implies any change in the velocity of an object with respect to time.
  • Velocity is measured in m/s while the measuring unit of acceleration in m/s2.
  • Velocity calculate with displacement, Acceleration calculate with velocity
  • The product of mass and velocity of a moving object is momentum. whereas the product of mass and acceleration gives the value of the applied force on the object.
  • Velocity is given as the ratio of change in position with time. However, acceleration is the ratio of change in velocity with respect to time.
  • Velocity is a parameter that relies on displacement and time but acceleration relies on velocity and time.
  • Velocity provide information regarding the fastness of an object moving in a specific time. An acceleration gives information about the variable velocity of the object at different time intervals.
  • The formula of velocity is displacement per time(d/t) while in acceleration velocity per time (v/t).

STM full form

What is the full form of STM?

  • Synchronous Transport Module

What does STM mean?

STM is a module that is used in a fiber-optic network, its standard for SDH(Synchronous digital hierarchy). The transmission formate is considered for the main building block diagram for Synchronous digital hierarchies. Apart from the fact that the high rate of the signals is created by multiplexing numerous STM-1 signals, lower rate payload are also mapped into STM-1.

Advantages of digital system over analog system

Nowadays the digital system is most widely used in the system, Though the digital system is advanced, there are some advantages in digital compared to an analog system. Some of the advantages of a digital system over an analog system are listed below.

What are the digital system over an analog systems?

  • Reproductiivity of the results.
  • Accuracy of results.
  • Flexibility and functionality.
  • Ease of design: No specific math skill needed to visualize the behavior of small digital circuits.
  • Programmability.
  • Due to the integration of millions of digital logic elements on a single miniature chip forming for very low cost integrated circuits.
  • More reliable than an analog system due to better immunity to noise.
  • Speed: A digital logic integration of millions of digital logic elements on a single miniature chip forming low cost integrated circuits.

Advantages of digital circuits over analog circuits

What are the advantages of the digital circuits over the analog circuits?

  • The Digital circuit is very accurate.
  • The Digital circuit generates a digital signal which is more reliable than analog signals.
  • Compare to the analog circuits is that signal represented digitally can be transmitted without degradation due to noise. 
  • Digital signal can be used by digital circuit components, which are very cheap and easy to produce in many components on a single chip.
  • Enables transmission of signal over a long distance.
  • Digital signal maintains its quality over long distances better than analog signals.
  • Digital signals carry more information per second than analog signals circuit.
  • Digital signal is used to construct a digital circuit since the cost of digital components is very cheap.
  • Digital circuits are easy to design and cheaper than analog circuits.
  • Digital signal faster than the analog signal.
  • The hardware implementation in a digital circuit is more flexible than analog.
  • In a digital system, a more precise representation of a signal can be obtained by using a binary digit(0's or 1's) to represent it. Each digit handled by the same kind of hardware.
  • The signal processing function such as encryption and compression are employed in digital circuits to maintain the secrecy of the information.
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Differences between Analog Circuits and Digital Circuits

What is an Analog circuit?

The analog circuits, which operate or work with continuous-valued signals or continuously varying signals, these signals are commonly referred to as an analog signal. The Analog signal is sound, light, etc. The Analog circuit is usually much more susceptible to noise. The small changes in the voltage level of an analog signal may produce significant errors when being processed.

What is a Digital circuit? 
The Digital circuit operates or works on signals whose values exist at two levels only or has only two values the 0's ad 1's. These signals are commonly referred to as a digital signal, at any given instant of time the value of digital can be either high(1) or low(0).

The main key difference between Analog circuit and Digital circuit are listed below:

  • Analog circuits operate on continuously variable signal also known as the Analog signal while in Digital circuit operate on discreetly variable signal or digital signals. This signal existed only in two levels 0 and 1.
  • Analog signal is quite difficult to design, depending on the efficiency and precision. Digital circuit are relatively easy to design with automated tools available for various stages of design and analysis.
  • Analog circuit there is no need for data conversion, there is delay no loss of information but in the digital circuit the process of converting analog signal to digital signal, there might a significant amount of data loss, which can result in loss of information.
  • Analog circuits can directly accept the signal from outside as the data is already analog whereas if the digital circuit has to acquire data from the physical world, the analog signals must be converted to digital signals first.
  • If the precision and accuracy are not a criterion, then analog circuits can be simple and inexpensive while in the Digital circuit is a simple design technique and also a low cost, the digital circuit provides good accuracy and precision.
  • Due to the lack of skilled engineers and the complexity of the design the analog circuits can turn out to be quite expensive, Wheres advanced integrated circuits technologies and many other factors help the digital circuits to be reliable.
  • Analog circuit are typically routine made and lack flexibility, Digital circuit has a high degree of elasticity.
  • In analog circuits, since there is no conversions involved at the input or at the output side there is no loss of information that is available for processing but in a digital circuit due to conversion process at the input side means that analog to digital and the output side, some amount of information is lost during the conversion process.
  • The manpower available to design analog circuits is very low, this results in long time to market the finished products, while in the digital circuit the available manpower to design. Digital circuits are significantly very large compared to that of analog circuit designers.
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MEMS full form

What is the full form of MEMS?

  • Micro-Electromechanical System

What does MEMS mean?

MEMS system which allows both electronic circuits and also a mechanical device to be manufactured on a silicon chip, similar to the process used for integrated circuits. In this system the physical dimension can range from several millimeters to less than one micrometer, a dimension was many times smaller than the width of a human hair, it is a very small part. MEMS devices can vary from relatively simple structures having no moving elements to extremely very complex electromechanical systems and it using with multiple moving elements under the control of integrated some microelectronics.

Advantages and disadvantages of MEMS technology

MEMS stands for a micro electro mechanical system, It is the process of used to create tiny integrated devices or systems that combine mechanical and electrical components or devices. They are fabricated using the IC batch processing techniques and can range in the size from a few micrometers to millimeters. Now let us discuss the advantages and disadvantages of MEMS technology to better understand this topic

Advantages  or benefits of MEMS:

  • MEMS switches and actuators also can attain very high frequencies. 
  • MEMS devices require very low power consumption.
  • MEMS can be readily integrated with microelectronics to achieve an embedded mechatronic system.
  • It improved reproductivity.
  • Higher accuracy, sensitivity, and selectivity.
  • MEMS sensors possess extremely high sensitivity.
  • Extremely it scalable in manufacturing, resulting in very low unit costs when mass is produced.
  • Scaling effect at microscopic levels can be leveraged to achieve the design and dynamic mechanisms otherwise not possible at micro scales.
  • Easier to alter the part of a device as compared to its macro counterparts.

Disadvantages or drawback of MEMS:

  • Very expensive during the research and development stage any new MEMS design or devices.
  • Fabrication and assembly unit costs can be very high for low quantities. therefore, MEMS are not suitable for only niche applications, unless cost is not an issue.
  • Polysilicon is a brittle material.
  • Farm establishment requires a huge investment.
  • Prior knowledge is needed to integrate MEMS device
  • The design includes very complex procedure.
  • Very expensive upfront setup cost for fabrication cleanrooms and boundary facilities.
  • Testing equipment to characterize the quality and performance can also be expensive.