ESRO full form

 What is the full form of ESRO?


  • European Space Research Organisation

What does ESRO mean?

ESRO was an international organization established by ten European countries with the aim of conducting joint space research. It was founded in 1964. ESRO was founded on the foundation of an already established international scientific organization.

ELDO full form

 What is the full form of ELDO?


  • European Launcher Development Organisation

What does ELDO mean?

ELDO was originally designed to serve as a satellite launch vehicle for Europe. Europa was the name given to the three-stage rocket after the legendary Greek deity.

SSO full form

 What is the full form of SSO?


  • Sun-Synchronous Orbit

What does SSO mean?

SSO is also known as the heliosynchronous orbit, is a nearly polar orbit around a planet in which the satellite passes over every point on its surface at the same local mean solar time.

ESA full form

 What is the full form of ESA?


  • European Space Agency

What does ESA mean?

ESA was established in 1975 when the European launcher development organization(ELDO) and the European space research organization merged to form the European space research organization(ESRO). It is headquartered in Paris and has 22 member states.

GEO full form

What is the full form of GEO?

  • Geostationary Orbit

What does GEO mean?

GEO is a circular geosynchronous orbit that follows the direction of earth rotation is 35,786 kilometers in altitude above the equator. This is much farther from earth's surface compared to many satellites.

Colorimeter | Principle | Part | Advantages and disadvantages | Applications

 What is a colorimeter?

A colorimeter is a piece of equipment used in colorimetry. It refers to a system that aids in the absorption of a certain wavelength of light by a specific solution. Using the beer lambert law, the colorimeter is used to determine the concentration of a specified solute in a given solution.

Principle of colorimeter:

It is a photometric technique which states that when a beam of an incident of the intensity I০ passes through a solution, the following occur:

  • A part of it is reflected which is denoted as Ir
  • A part of it is absorbed which is denoted as Ia
  • The rest of the light is transmitted and is denoted as It
Therefore Io = Ir + Ia + It


Ia  = the measurement of  Io and It is sufficient therefore Ir is eliminated. To calculate Io and It, the amount of light reflected is kept constant.

A colorimeter is based on two basic photometric rules

Beer's law:

The amount of light absorbed is proportional to the solute concentration in the solution, according to this law.

LOg10 Io/It = As * C


As is absorbency index

C is the concentration of the solution

Lambert law:

The amount of light absorbed is proportional to the length and thickness of the solution used for analysis, according to this law.

A = log10 Io/It = As * B


A is the test absorbance of the test

As is the standard absorbance

B is the length/thickness of the solution

Part of colorimeter:

There is 5 essential part of colorimeter:

  1. Light source
  2. Monochromator
  3. Sample holder
  4. Photodetector system
  5. Measuring device
Light source: The most common source of light used in the colorimeter is a tungsten filament.

Monochromator: To pick a specific wavelength, monochromators or filters are used to split the light from the source.

Sample holder: Color solutions are kept in test tubes, which are made of glass with a visible wavelength.

Photodetector system: As light strikes the photodetector device, an electric current is produced, which is used to produce the reflected galvanometer reading.

Measuring device: The current from the detector is fed to the galvanometer, which displays a meter reading that is directly proportional to the light intensity.

Working of colorimeter:

Working of colorimeter

  • It is important to calibrate the colorimeter before beginning the experiment. It's done with the help of standard solutions containing the calculated solute concentration. Place the cuvettes in the colorimeter's cuvette holder and fill them with normal solutions.
  • In the direction of the solution is a light ray of a certain wavelength that is specific for the assay. The light is filtered through a series of lenses and filters. The colored light is guided by lenses, and the filter splits a beam of light into different wavelengths, allowing only the appropriate wavelength to pass through and enter the regular test cuvette.
  • When the light beam crosses the cuvette The solutions transmit, reflect, and absorb the light. The photodetector device tests the strength of transmitted light when the transmitter ray hits it. It transforms it into an electrical signal, which it then sends to the galvanometer.
  • The electrical signal measured by the galvanometer is displayed in digital form.
  • Formula to determine substance concentration in test solutions
                A = 𝞊cl
for standard and test solutions:

𝞊 and i are constant

AT = CT...................(1)
AS = CS...................(2)

AT * CS  = AS * CT

CT  = (AT / AS) * CS


CT = Test solution concentration

AT  = Absorbance density of test solution

CS = the standard concentration

AS = Absorbance/optical density of standard solution

Advantages and disadvantages of colorimeter:


  • Result available in less than 1 second
  • A handheld and pocket-sized colorimeter can make between 100 and 300 measurements of four AA batteries.
  • The colorimeter is fairly expensive.
  • Some surfaces reflect light, making it difficult to take measurements.

Uses of colorimeter | Applications of colorimeter
  • It's used in the production of paint.
  • It's used in the textile and food industries, among other things.
  • It's used to figure out how much hemoglobin is in your blood.
  • It is used to analyze proteins, glucose, and other biochemical compounds quantitatively.
  • In laboratories and hospitals, it's used to calculate biochemical samples like urine, cerebrospinal fluid, plasma, and serum.
  • It's used to figure out how thick water is.

Pros and cons of CISC

The complex instruction set computer (CISC) was created to make compiler creation easier and more straightforward. There is a form of chi that is simple to program and makes good use of memory. So, in order to better understand this subject, this article discusses the benefits and drawbacks of CISC architecture.

Pros of CISC | Advantages of CISC:

  • In CISC it is easy to add the new command into the chip without the need to change the structure of the instruction set.
  • Instructions are at a high level when compared to RISC, programmers or compilers for CISC have lesser workloads.
  • The hardware does more of the work in decoding instruction. The complexity of instruction means less memory requirement.
  • Mircoproamming is a simple and inexpensive alternative to hardwiring a control unit.
  • As a result of the architecture, you can make efficient use of main memory.
  • As in the case of CISC, the compiler should not be overly complex. The instruction sets may be written to correspond to the structure of high-level languages.

Cons of CISC | Disadvantages of CISC:

  • They are larger as they require more transistors.
  • This architecture necessitates chip hardware to be continuously reprogrammed.
  • Because of its sophistication, it is more costly to implement than RISC.
  • CISC centers on minimizing the memory requirement. Memory back then was small and expensive. This is not the case today.
  • Since the clock time taken by various instructions will never be the same, the machine's output will slow down.
  • Many functions are performed by the complexities of hardware and on-chip software used in CISC design.

Characteristics of RISC

 What are the characteristics of RISC?

  1. Simple instruction decoding.
  2. Pipeline architecture.
  3. Hard wired control rather than microprogrammed.
  4. Only load and store instruction have memory access.
  5. Fewer data types.
  6. Simple addressing mode.
  7. Register to register operations.
  8. A number of the general purposes of register.
  9. One instruction per cycle.
  10. A greater number of registers reduces the time it takes to access external memory.
  11. Smaller programs.
  12. It will be easier to carry out instructions.
  13. The number of instructions were limited or restricted as a result.

Characteristics of CISC

What are the characteristics of CISC?

  1. A large number of instrument
  2. A large variety of addressing modes.
  3. It offers variable-length instruction formates.
  4. Instruction is larger than one-word size.
  5. Various CISC designs are set up with two special registers for the stack pointer for managing interrupts.
  6. More data types.
  7. Institution decoding logic will be complex.
  8. Instruction for special tasks used infrequently.
  9. As operations are performed in memory, there are fewer general-purpose registers.
  10. It's possible that instruction would take more than one clock cycle to complete.

Colorimeter vs Spectrometer

What is a colorimeter?

A colorimeter is designed to perform a type of psychophysical sample analysis, which means its measurement correlates to human perception. To put it another way, it's made to see color the way we do.

What is a spectrometer?

The spectrometer is an instrument designed for a physical sample analysis via a full spectrum color measurement. by providing wavelength by wavelength spectral analysis of a sample's reflectance, absorbance, or transmittance properties.

Difference between colorimeter and spectrometer:

  • A colorimeter is a general type, while a spectrometer is a specific type.
  • A colorimeter is limited to the visible light only with WL 400-700nm, while the spectrometer can be extended to x-ray, UV light, infrared, and radiofrequency.
  • Colorimeters 2 digit reading after the decimal point,  while the spectrometer is 4 digit reading after the decimal point.
  • The calorimeter consists of a sensor and simple data processor, while the spectrometer consists of the plus data processor or computer with software.
  • Both of them measure the color and intensity of color through light.
  • The basic method of operation is similar for all instruments.
  • the colorimeter is cheap, while the spectrometer is very costly.
  • Colorimeter utilizes three-color generally, red, green, and blue generated either color wheel with a color filter or set of specially designed LEDs. While spectrometer utilizes either a diffraction grating or prism in the sensor.
  • The calorimeter consists of a rugged and less complex instrument than a spectrometer, while the spectrometer is a more complex instrument than the colorimeter.
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Pros and cons of RISC processor

Pros of RISC processor |  Advantages of RISC processor

  • It necessitates the use of many transistors, which makes it less expensive to design.
  • Because of its simplicity, RISC allows instructions to use free space on a microprocessor.
  • Since the RISC processor's instruction set is simple and minimal, it performs better.
  • Because of their easy and fast nature, RISC processors are easier to use than CISC processors, and they can complete their tasks in a single clock cycle.
  • Because of its simplicity, it allows for the use of more space on a microprocessor.
  • The register is used by many RISC processors to transfer arguments and carry local variables.
  • A high-level language compiler can generate more efficient code using the RISC architecture, which has a collection of instructions.

Cons of RISC processor | Disadvantages of RISC processor:.

  • Complex instructions are often used by programmers and compilers.
  • Since subsequent instructions in a loop will rely on the previous instruction for execution, the output of a RISC processor may vary depending on the code.
  • RISC processors need to save various instructions quickly, which necessitates a large cache memory set to react to the instruction in a timely manner.
  • It's worth noting that the compiler must also decompose high-level instructions into a series of simpler instructions.
  • When opposed to developing CISC processors, developers must put in more effort.
  • It's worth noting that RISC's complete capabilities, features, and benefits are still dependent on the architecture.
  • The size of a CISC code increased when it was converted to RISC code. The code's consistency will be determined by the following factors.
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Both CISC and RISC are the architectural design of the CPU based on instruction set variation. The two are differentiated on various factors such as a programming unit, addressing mode, clock, implementation, application, etc  The main key difference between RISC and CISC is that RISC utilizes a hardwired programming unit, while the CISC has a microprogramming unit. So here this article gives the difference between CISC and RISC to better understand this topic.

What is RISC?

The key concept is to make hardware simpler by using an instruction set that consists of a few basic steps for loading, evaluating, and storing operations, similar to how a load command loads data and a store command stores data.

What is CISC?

The key concept is that a single instruction will handle all loading, evaluating, and storing operations, similar to how a multiplication command will handle loading, evaluating, and storing data, which is why it is complicated.

Difference between CISC and RISC:

  • A hardwired programming unit is used in RISC, while microprogramming is used in CISC.
  • CISC is an original microprocessor ISA, while the RISC has redesigned ISA that emerged in the early 1980s.
  • The Instruction set optimization of RISC is software-based while that of CISC is hardware-based.
  • The instruction decoding of RISC is comparatively simpler than that of CISC.
  • The simple nature of the RISC instrument set, offers a short execution time than the CISC instruction set, as CISC posses complex nature.
  • For the purpose of storing instruction, multiple register sets are needed by the RISC processor while the same requires a single resistor set in the case of a CISC processor.
  • The program designed for the RISC needs, large memory space for its storage. CISC architecture the design program requires comparatively less space.
  • For the purpose of calculation, no external memory is used by RISC whereas CISC requires external.
  • CISC is used more efficient RAM than RISC, RISC is heavy use RAM.
  • For the purpose of the calculation, no external memory is used by RISC whereas CISC requires external memory for the same.
  • The operation is supported by a small number of addressing modes in RISC, while the operation is supported by compound addressing modes in CISC.
  • The size of the instrument format in the case of RISC is fixed and is 32 bits whereas CISC offers a variable instruction set format whose size ranges between 16 to 64 bits for each instruction.
  • RISC can perform the only register to register arithmetic operations, while the CISC can perform REG to REG, or REG to MEM, 
  • In a RISC processor, both data and instruction required a separate cache. while it is a combined cache for data and instruments in CISC.
  • In RISC, there might be some issues with code expansion, but in CISC, the code expansion causes no problems.
  • The average close required per cycle for operation in RISC is generally single while CISC requires multiple clocks for operation execution.
  • In RISC the complexity is associated with the compiler whereas in CISC the complexity is associated with the microprogram.
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PSPCL full form

 What is the full form of PSPCL in banking?


  • Panjab State Electricity Board

What does PSPCL mean?

PSPCL is the Punjab state government's electricity generation and distribution corporation in India. PSPCL was formed as a company on April 16, 2010, and was tasked with running and maintaining the facility.

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  1. Full form of NTPC
  2. Full form of BARC
  3. Full form of ONGC
  4. Full form of BHEL
  5. Full form of VSAT
  6. Full form of  ISRO
  7. Full form of AEP
  8. Full form of TPCOL
  9. Full form of GSECL
  10. Full form of MGVCL
  11. Full form of AEMC
  12. Full form of GUVNL
  13. Full form of DGVCL
  14. Full form of GEB
  15. Full form of GETCO
  16. Full form of NASA

UGVCL full form

 What is the full form of UGVCL?


  • Uttar Gujarat Vij Company Limited

What does UGVCL?

UGVCL is an unbundled subsidiary of the former Gujarat electricity board and one of the distribution companies for electricity distribution in Gujarat north region.

Explore more information:

  1. Full form of NTPC
  2. Full form of BARC
  3. Full form of ONGC
  4. Full form of BHEL
  5. Full form of VSAT
  6. Full form of  ISRO
  7. Full form of AEP
  8. Full form of TPCOL
  9. Full form of GSECL
  10. Full form of MGVCL
  11. Full form of AEMC
  12. Full form of GUVNL
  13. Full form of DGVCL
  14. Full form of GEB
  15. Full form of GETCO
  16. Full form of NASA

DHBVN full form

 What is the full form of DHBVN?


  • Dakshin Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam

What does DHBVN mean?

DHBVN  is a government of haryana owned power company responsible for power distribution in the southern parts of haryana, India.

Explore more information:

  1. Full form of NTPC
  2. Full form of BARC
  3. Full form of ONGC
  4. Full form of BHEL
  5. Full form of VSAT
  6. Full form of  ISRO
  7. Full form of AEP
  8. Full form of TPCOL
  9. Full form of GSECL
  10. Full form of MGVCL
  11. Full form of AEMC
  12. Full form of GUVNL
  13. Full form of DGVCL
  14. Full form of GEB
  15. Full form of GETCO
  16. Full form of NASA
  17. Full form of UGVCL

LM1117 Pinout | Introduction | Configuration | Features | Advantages | Application

LM1117 is an adjustable voltage regulator that can provide a patch as well as a variable voltage. It can provide a fixed voltage of 1.8,2.5,, and 5 volts for a starter. It has a variable output voltage that can be adjusted between 12.5 and 13.8 volts. Let us have a deep insight into the introduction, pinout, features, advantages, applications of LM1117.

LM1117 Pinout Diagram:

  • Pin1: This pin connects to the ground when used in fixed voltage mode. It is the adjustable mode, it is an adjust pin and provides features to adjust the output voltage as desired.
  • Pin2: It gives the stable and regulated output voltage.
  • Pin3: The IC applied with input voltage signal through this pin

LM1117 Pinout Diagram

Features of LM1117:

  • Fixed/adjustable 3 terminal linear voltage regulator
  • Output current is 800mA
  • Inbuilt current limiting and thermal protection
  • Available in To-220, SOT223, TO263 packet
  • Variable voltage range:1.25V to 13.8V
  • Operating Junction temperature is 125 degrees centrigrated.
  • Fixed voltage type: 1.8V, 2.5V, 3.3V, and 5V.
  • The maximum input voltage for this IC is 20V.
  • The line voltage regulator having a minimum drop-out voltage of 1.1V.
  • Line regulation of 0.1% max and load regulation of  0.2% max.
  • It has an internal thermal protection circuit for protecting IC against overheating
  • Protection against overcurrents is also provided.

Application of LM1117: 

  • AC drive stage modules
  • Merchant network and server PSU
  • Industrial AC/DC
  • Ultrasound scanners
  • Switching DC to DC converters
  • Controlling motors
  • The current limiting and reverse polarity circuit can be implemented using this linear voltage regulator.
  • Servo drive control modules
Alternative voltage regulators:

LM7805, LM7809, LM7905, LM117V33, XC6206P332MR

Where to use it?

These are high-efficiency linear regulators can work down to -40 degree centigrade which makes it suitable for outdoor and high altitude applications. This chip can be used in battery chargers. Battery-powered instrumentation and in designing variable power supplies. This chip is used in DVDs, PC, and some other consumer products.

LM317 pinout | Introduction | Configuration | Features | Advantages | Application

As we know that IC is available in various forms like 555 timers, single logic gates, microcontroller, microprocessor, voltage regulator, and op-amps like different ICs. IC  LM741, LM324 IC, LM339 IC, LM117, LM358, LM7805, LM138, and many more ICs are available. Here we have to learn or introduce IC LM37. Let us have a deep insight into the introduction, pinout, features, advantages, applications of LM317.

Introduction to LM317:

When it comes to variable control, the LM317 is almost certainly the best choice. It can be used as a fixed voltage regulator, current limiter, battery charger, AC voltage regulator, and even an adjustable current regulator in addition to being a variable voltage regulator. 

LM317 Pinout Diagram:

Pin 1: Adjust - This pin adjusts the output voltage.

Pin 2: Output voltage - The regulated output voltage set by the adjusted pin can be obtained from this

 Pin 3: Input voltage- The input voltage which has to be regulated is given to this pin

LM317 pinout

Features of LM317:

  • The output voltage can set to range from 1.25 to 37V
  • Adjustable 3 terminal positive voltage regulator
  • Require low external component
  • The maximum input to output voltage difference is 40V, recommended 15V
  • The maximum output current when a voltage difference is 15V is 2.2A
  • Available in to-220, SOT223, TO263 package
  • The output current is 1.5A.
  • Overheat shutdown function
  • Capable of short circuit protection
  • Require only two external resistors for output adjustment
  • Low price
  • Reliable to use in commercial applications
  • Low standby current
  • There are 80 dB ripple rejection
  • The operating junction temperature is 125 °C

Application of LM317:

  • Used for positive voltage regulation
  • Variable power supply
  • DC to Dc converter
  • Battery charger
  • Solar power supply
  • Microcontroller related application
  • Current limiting circuits
  • Used in motor control circuits
  • Reverse polarity circuit
  • Commonly used in desktop, PC, DVD, and other consumers products
  • Portable instruments

Simple application circuit of LM317:

The LM317 voltage regulator is demonstrated in this simple circuit. Only two external resistors are needed in this case. Capacitors may also be used to eliminate voltage differences at the input and output terminals. These capacitors help to reduce the output voltage ripple.

Simple application circuit of LM317

The output voltage of this circuit depends on resistors R1 and R2. The equations for calculating output voltage will be:

VOUT: 1.25 * ( 1+(R2+R1)
If R1 & R2 are minimum, the output will be equal to 1.25
If R1=R2, the output voltage will be 2.5 volts.

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DEWA full form

 What is the full form of DEWA?


  • Dubai Electricity and Water Authority

What does DEWA mean?

Sheikh Maktoum bin Rashid AI Maktoum created DEWA, a public service infrastructure firm, on January 1, 1992. The Dubai Electricity Company and the Dubai Water Agency, which had previously operated separately, merged to create DEWA.

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  1. Full form of DHBVN

AEMC full form

What is the full form of AEMC?


  • Australian Energy  Market Commission

What does AEMC mean?

The Australian government's specialist energy policy advisor is AEMC. We write, edit, and advise on energy regulations.

TPCOL full form

What is the full form of TPCOL?


  • TP Central Odisha Distribution Limited

What does TPCOL mean?

TPCODL is a joint venture between Tata Power and the government of Odisha.

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