Difference between power transformer and distribution transformer

The transformer is installed at various power stations for generation and transmission of power in power transformer. It acts as a step up or steps down transformer for increasing and decreasing the level of voltages as per the requirement and its also used as an interconnection between two power stations.

The distribution transformer is used to bring down or step down the voltage and current level of the transmission line to a predefined level, which is called safety level and interconnection between two power stations.

The key difference between the power transformer and distribution transformer is given below.

  • The power transformer is used in the transmission network of higher voltages whereas the distribution transformer is used in the distribution network of lower voltages.
  • Power transformer the iron and copper losses take place throughout the day but in distribution transformer, the iron loss takes place in 24 hours.
  • The power transformer always operates on rated full load as the load fluctuation is very less but the distribution transformer is operated at the load less than full load as the variation in the load are very high.
  • The power transformer is available in a various rating of 400 K, 200 KV, 110 KV, 66 KV, 33 KV in the market and the distribution transformer are available in 11 KV, 6.6 KV, 3.3 KV, 440 V, 230 Volts.
  • The power transformer is designed for maximum efficiency of 100% and the efficiency is simply calculated by the ratio o the output power to the input power whereas the distribution transformer the maximum efficiency varies between 50 to 70% and calculated by all-day efficiency.
  • The power transformer has a large size as compared to the distribution transformer.
  • The fluctuation of the load in the power transformer is much less compared with the distribution transformer.
  • The density of flux in the power transformer is higher than in a distribution transformer.
  • In the substation at the end of the transmission line, the power transformer connection is star delta.

Difference between ac and dc motor

We all know that both AC and DC motors serve the actually same function of converting electrical energy into mechanical energy, they are powered, constructed and controlled differently. The most basic difference between AC motor and DC motor is that AC motor power on AC current while DC motor power on DC current, to learn in detail about AC and DC motor difference is given below. 

The main key difference between AC and DC motor are given below:
  • AC motors are powered from AC current while DC motors are powered from DC current.
  • AC motor conversion of current is not required while DC motors conversion of current is required like DC current.
  • The main source of the AC motor is currently coming from the three-phase or the single phase supply mains while the sources of the DC motors are batteries and cells.
  • In AC motor there are three input terminals known as RYB while in DC motor are only two terminals. They are known as positive and negative.
  • AC motor is used where power performance is sought for extended periods of time, DC motors are used where motor speed required to be controlled externally.
  • AC motor can be single phase or three phases while DC motors are single phase.
  • AC motors armatures do not rotate while magnetic field continuously rotates, while in DC motors the armature rotates while the magnetic field does rotate.
  • AC motor is suitable for large and industrial applications while in DC motors are most commonly used for small and domestic applications.
  • AC motors do not use brushes, DC motor uses brushes.
  • AC motors are not self-starting and thus it requires some external equipment to start the motor initially, DC motor is self-starting motors.
  • AC motors have a longer life span, DC motors have not longer life span.
  • The maintenance cost of the AC motor is more as compared to DC motor.
  • AC motor requires effective starting equipment like a capacitor to start operation while DC motor does not require any external help to start operation.
  • The speed of AC motors is simply controlled by varying the frequency of the current, The speed of DC motors is controlled by varying the armature winding current.
  • Efficiency of AC motor is less while the efficiency of the DC motor is high as there is no slip and induction current loss.

Difference between ac and dc generator

 We all know that the power electronics knowledge is that the AC generator generates an output voltage which alters in amplitude as well as time whereas the DC generator as a constant output voltage which does not change in amplitude as well as time. Here this post gives information about the difference between AC and DC generator to better understand this topic.


The main KEY difference between AC and DC generator are given below:

  • AC generator is a mechanical device which converts mechanical energy into AC electric power while in DC generator is a mechnical device which converts mechanical energy in DC electric power supply.
  • AC generator generates AC electric power while the DC generator generates DC electric power.
  • In AC generator current flow in one direction while in DC generator current periodically change direction.
  • AC generator has slip rings, while DC generator uses a split ring commutator.
  • AC generator requires very less maintenance and thus more reliable than a DC generator while DC generator requires frequent maintenance.
  • In AC generator slip rings have smooth and uninterrupted surfaces which allow the brushes to remains in contact uninterrupted with the slip ring surfaces. Hence the brushes do not wear as quickly as in case of a DC  generator and there is almost no possibility of a short circuit while DC generator uses commutators and brushes were out quickly in the commutator because of sparking.
  • AC generator requires very less maintenance and thus more reliable than a DC generator while DC generator requires frequent maintenance.
  • AC generator used to generate very high voltages, DC generator used to generate comparatively lower voltages.
  • AC generator does not have commutator, DC generator possesses commutators in order to counter the changing polarities effect.
  • AC voltage can be distributed quite easily using a transformer but in DC generator DC voltage is comparatively difficult to distribute efficiently.
  • AC generator has a different type like rotating armature, single phase, three phases, rotating field while in DC generator has a different type like a permanent magnet, Self-excited and separately excited.

Difference between motor and generator

The generator and motor are such a device whose function is just the opposite of each other. One is used to generate electricity and other uses of electricity. In this article, we will learn about the difference between motor and generator to better understand this topic.

Electric motor:
  • An electric motor generates energy from electrical energy
  • Electricity is required for its operation
  • In while uses an electric motor, electrical energy is in the input form
  • Flemings left-hand rule is followed to know the direction of motion
  • Source of energy is power grids, electrical supply
  • The motor is used in automobiles, elevators, fans, pumps, etc
  • The maintenance of the electric motor is less as compared to the generator
Generator:
  • The electrical generator generates electrical energy from mechanical energy.
  • Generator generate electricity
  • In the generator, electrical energy is in the output from
  • Flemings right-hand rule is followed to know the direction of produced electricity
  • Source of energy are steam turbines, internal combustion engines.
  • The generator is used in power supply chains in industries, testing purpose in the laboratory general lighting, power of batteries, etc
  • The maintenance of the generator is more as compared to the motor
The main key difference between generator and electric motor are given below:
  • The generator is a device which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy whereas the motor is a device which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
  • The generator used to generate electricity while the motor used to generate mechanical power.
  • In generator, the current is produced in the armature winding whereas in the motor the current is utilized in the armature winding to produce mechanical force. The armature can be on rotor or stator.
  • In generator, the direction of the current induced is determined by the use of Flemings right-hand rule while in motor the direction of force produced is determined by the use of the flaming left-hand rule.
  • The example of the motor is an electric car or bike where the electric current is supplied to the machine or device. and it gets converted into mechanical motion and as result the car or bike device, and it gets converted into mechanical motion and as result turbine is used as a device which converts the mechanical energy of the force of water falling from the dam to generate electric energy.
  • In generator the shaft is driven by the mechanical power,  in motor, the shaft is driven by the mechanical force produced by the electricity.
  • The maintenance of the generator is more compared with the motor.

alternator vs generator

The major key difference between the alternator and generator is that generator armature is stationary and the field is stationary whereas the generator is that in alternator the armature is stationary and the field rotates. That has both of function of converting the mechanical energy into the electrical energy. The generator is the device which converts the mechanical energy into the electric current while the generator is the alternator is a device which converts mechanical energy into the electrical energy.

Definitions of alternator:

Alternator: An alternator is a machine which converts the mechanical power from a prime mover to AC electrical power at a specific voltage and frequency. For bulk power generation large alternator is used in thermal and hydro, nuclear power station.

Definition of generator:

Generator: Generator converts the mechanical energy into electrical energy or power. The working of the generator is based on the principle of Faraday laws of electromagnetic induction. 

The main key difference between alternator and generator are given below:

  • The alternator takes input supply from the stator,  the generator takes input supply from the rotor.
  • An alternator is a machine which converts the mechanical energy from a prime mover into the AC, whereas the generator converts the mechanical energy from the prime mover into an AC or DC.
  • The alternator induces the AC whereas the generator causes both AC and DC power. 
  • The generator produces a current which can either be alternating current or the direct current while in the generator only produce alternating current.
  • The armature of an alternator is stationary while in generator it is rotating.
  • The alternator has a wide range of RPM, the generator has a narrow range of RPM.
  • The output of the alternator is higher than compared to the generator.
  • The alternator is smaller in size and requires less space whereas the generator requires large space.
  • The output EMF of the alternator is variable and the output voltage of the generator is constant.
  • The alternator does not charge the completely dead battery while the generator charges the dead battery.
  • The alternator is energy efficient as they only use the required energy, whereas the generator utilizes all the energy that is produced.
  • The alternator has a rotating magnetic filed whereas the generator has a rotating magnetic field for the high voltage generation and low voltage stationary magnetic field is used.
  • There is no need for the polarization of alternator after installation, whereas the polarization is necessarily required after the installation of the generator. 
  • The generator produces the voltages all day long continuously while an alternator produces voltages only when it is required.

Difference between SCR and DIAC

The word thyristor denotes a family of semiconductor devices used for power control in dc and AC system. A thyristor is also called silicon control rectifier (SCR) is basically four semiconductor rectifier. While in DIAC stands for is bidirectional or full wave switch that can be turned on in both forward and reverse polarities. The name of word DIAC comes for the words DIode AC switch. Here this page gives information about the comparison between ASCR and DIAC to better understand this topic.

SCR:
  • SCR stands for silicon control rectifier.
  • SCR is a four layers PNPN device with three terminals namely anode, cathode, and gate.
  • SCR is a high power device.
  • SCR is a three terminal device.
  • SCR break over voltage can be controlled by adjusting the gate current.
  • SCR breakdown voltage is plus or minus 26 V. The maximum anode current is 25 mA.
  • SCR is a unidirectional switch. It conducts current only in one direction. So it can control only for DC power or it can control forward biased half cycle of AC input in the load.
  • SCR can only control either the positive or negative half cycle of AC input.
  • SCR is used in application like a dimmer, control light, fan, etc.
DIAC:
  • DIAC stands for diode alternating current.
  • A diode is basically a two terminal device and it is a parallel inverse combination of semiconductor layers and it permits triggering in either direction.
  • DIAC is a low power device.
  • DIAC is a two terminal device.
  • DIAC break over voltage cannot be controlled.
  • The forward break over voltage is 40 V. The maximum anode current is 100 A.
  • DIAC can be switched from its off state to ON state for either polarity of the applied voltage.
  • DIAC can be made in PNP or NPN structure form. 
  • DIAC we used as triggering device for the TRIAC.

CFL bulb advantages

CFL stands for compact fluorescent lamps are a very smaller version of full sized fluorescent lights, though they have better quality than their predecessors. CFLs are becoming very popular bulb and there is also some drawback to their use. Here this page we have to learn advantages and disadvantages of CFL bulbs to better understand this topic.

Advantages of CFLs bulbs:

The advantages of CFL are they are energy efficient, have good lumen maintenance, long life, dimmable, low operating cost, endless shapes and also the size and radiate less heat. 
  • CFL is up to four times more efficient than incandescent bulbs. You can replace a 100-watt incandescent bulb a 22 watt CFL get the same amount of light. CFLs use 50 to 80% less energy than incandescent lights
  • Switching to these light will allow you to do your part in reducing carbon emission where just a single bulb is said to reduce half a ton of this gas in the atmosphere
  • CFLs are highly versatile and must be used in any setting where you would normally use incandescent bulbs. Also, they come in various sizes and shapes that they can be used for table lamps, recessed fixtures, ceiling lighting, and track lighting, They are even 3 way CFLs that offer more versatility
  • Switching to these light will allow you to do your part in reducing carbon emissions, we're just a single bulb is said to reduce half a ton of this gas in the atmosphere
  • CFLs are less expensive in the long run because they last much longer than  the uses of incandescent bulbs
Disadvantages of CFL bulbs:
  • The only disadvantages are the mercury content in CFLs
  • While CFL bulbs are used outdoors they must be covered and protected from the elements. They are also sensitive to temperature and so in low temperature, it is in  low light level
  • While we have CFLs bulbs are supposed to last about 10000 hours turning them on and off too frequently can reduce that lifetime substantially. So they are unsuitable for places where you would turn on the light only briefly. Thes bulbs should be used only where they will be left on for a while without being turned on and off
  • While you can buy the CFL bulbs for use with dimmer switches not all CFLs can be used with them. Regular CFL bulbs that are not meant to be used with a dimmer switch can burn out quickly. The same applies to use CFLs with timmers 
  • CFL is not for focused or spotlights or where narrow beams of light are required. They are meant only for ambient light.