Types of floppy disk

A floppy disk is basically a computer component that has designed to read as well as write to the floppy disk that was used for removable storage. The most popular type of floppy disk drive is the 3 and 1/2 inch drive which nowadays limited use for today. The first floppy disk that came in the market were in 8 inches in diameter. This disk was protected by a flexible plastic jacket. An 8-inch disk back in the late 1970s could store data in 1 MB. In 1980 the 3.5-inch floppy or called micro floppy came on the market and this type became the dominant storage medium for personal computers for many years. 

Floppy disk was quite vulnerable. This disk is medium was very sensitive to dust, heat, and moisture. As we know that the flexible plastic carrier was also not very sturdy. The hard plastic case of the 3.5-inch floppy disk was presented a substantial improvement in this respect. The most common format of this floppy became the double-sided and high density 1.44 MB disk drive.

Nowadays floppy disk drive has been replaced by other types of such that DVD drives, CD drives as well as USB flash drives. They are many different types of floppy disk drives that have come and gone over the years.


According to the size, the floppy disk is generally called into two:

  • 3.5-inch diskette
  • 5.25-inch diskette
  • A normal 3 and 1/2-inch disk can store 1.44 megabytes of data.
  • Zip data - The part of  Zip drives were introduced by the Iomega corporation in the mid-year of -the 1990s. A zip disk was capable of storing 100 megabytes, 250 megabytes, 250 megabytes and even 750 megabytes on a single disk. Zip drives were mainly available as a peripheral that could be added to an existing system.

Concealed conduit wiring

The concealed conduit wiring system is the most popular, most common type of house electrical wiring used. Conduit wiring is a professional way if wiring a building and domestic wiring. Let us talk about what is conduit wiring, materials and tools are used in conduit wiring and how to install, uses, precautions a concealed conduit wiring system.

What is concealed conduit wiring?

In this method of wiring, all the conduits are installed into the wall and the conduit should be covered by the list 1/4 inch of plaster in sunken work.

Materials  used in Concealed conduit:

  • Wooden board
  • Installation tap
  • Junction box
  • ceiling rose
  • Lamp holder
  • PVC cable
  • Main witch 
  • Switch
  • Sockets
  • screws
  • Tees
  • Elbow
  • Kitke fuse 
  • Bushing
Tools  used in Concealed conduit :

  • File
  • Megger
  • Knife
  • Hummer
  • Wood saw
  • Hack saw
  • Pipe wrench
  • Screw wrench
  • Drill machine 
  • Measuring tape
  • Combinational plier
  • Stock and die set
  • Phase tester
  • Nose plier
  • Metal hook
  • Stair
The procedure of concealed conduit wiring:

We all know that the concealed wiring the except meaning of that concealed conduit wiring. It is very laborious to install. The layout of this wiring is done under the wall of the building. Conduit wiring pipes are buried under the plaster of the wall with GI wire inside. After, with the uses of GI wires, the main PVC insulated cables are drawn through the conduit system.

Precautions of concealed conduit wiring:

  • The interior surface of the conduit must be clean and dry otherwise the cables may suffer damage.
  • Every metal box must be earthed
  • Always use the looping method.
  • The conduit must be installed during building construction work in the concrete ceiling.
  • All the safety precautions which are taken in the surface conduit system will also be implied in a concealed system.
  • Whenever conduit is to be buried by concrete special care must be taken, otherwise, liquid cement may enter the conduit.

Uses of concealed conduit wiring:
  • Home
  • Hospitals
  • Commercial place
  • Bungalows
  • Cold storage
  • Railway station 
  • Record room
  • Laboratory
  • Workshop
  • Mosques

Importance of floppy disk

One of the most important point is that a floppy disk is a portable computer storage device that permits easy handling of data. It is commonly used with personal computers, a notebook, and computers, and word processors.  This disk consists of flat, circular plates made of metal or plastic ad coated with iron oxide.

Here given  some importance of floppy disk are listed below:
  • It is used referring to fake between computers.
  • One of the best advantages of a floppy disk is that they are relatively small and portable.
  • it can be store private date more securely so that other users on a network cannot gain access to it.
  • It is useful in transferring a file between computers.
  • It is easy to handle and transport 
  • They have to write protection which protects your data from accidental detection.
  • All kinds of data like public, private can be stored on the floppy disk.

Category LM337 Pinout

Application of LM337 pinout

LM337 a wide variety of applications including, local on card regulations. This device can be also used to make a programmable output regulator or by connecting a fixed resistor between the adjustable and output. LM337 can be used as a precision current regulator.  Here this post gives information about the application of LM337 to better understand this topic.
  • Used for positive voltage regulations.
  • Variable power supply.
  • Current limiting circuits.
  • Used in motor control circuits.
  • Commonly used in desktop PC, DVDs, and other consumer products.
  • Reverse polarity circuits.
  • Precision voltage and current regulator.
  • On card regulator.

LM337 Adjustable output negative voltage regulator

Here we have to learn or introduce about  IC LM337, it is an adjustable 3 terminal negative voltage regular capable of supplying in excess of 1.5A over an output voltage of -1.2V to -37V. The LM337  serves a wide variety of applications including local, on-card regulations. The LM337 is the equivalent counterpart of the LM317 positive voltage regular. The IC comes in three terminals standard TO-220 package. Getting the output voltage with this regulator is very easy and required only two external resistors to set the output voltage. So it can be used for a wide variety of applications in programmable voltage regulator and precision current regulator.  The IC commonly used in adjustable lab voltage in combination with the LM317 IC. The device features with internal current limiting, thermal shutdown, and safe area compensation. Here the post is given below that the IC LM337 must be used for reference from the LM337 datasheet.

LM337 Voltage Regulator Descriptions:

The LM337 is the basically equivalent counterpart of the LM317 positive voltage regulator.  This IC is commonly used in adjustable lab voltage generators in combination with the LM317 IC. It can be also used in the current regulator. This IC is basically three PINs in which the input voltage supplied to Vin pin then using a pair of the register that we set a voltage at adjusting pin which will decide the output voltage of the IC that given out at Vout pin. The below circuit is shown for reference from the LM337 datasheet.

LM337 voltage regulator description

The output voltage thus obtained can be calculated using the below formula.

Vout  = - 1.25 × [1 + (R2/R1)]

The actual formula in the datasheet will also include current through the adjust a pin but for a simplification purpose, we have assumed Iadj to be 50uA constant which will slightly differ in the practical application. Also, note that the output current of the IC will not be 1.5A always if the difference voltage between the input and output voltage is high the output current will also decrease. 

Features of IC LM337

Description of IC LM337:

The LM337 are adjustable 3 terminal negative voltage regulators capable of supplying in excess of -1.5 A over an output voltage range of -1.2 V to -37 V. They always require only two external resistors to set the output voltage and one output capacitor for frequency compensation. Here this post gives some basic features of IC LM337  to better understand this IC's.

Basic features of  IC LM337 are given below:

  • It is an adjustable 3 terminal negative voltage regulator.
  • Its output voltage can be set to range from -1.25V to 37V.
  • The operating junction temperature is 125 C.
  • Output voltage adjustable down to VRFF.
  • 0.01%/V typical line regulation.
  • 0.3%/V typical load regulation.
  • The current limit is constant with temperature.
  • Ripple rejection around 77 dB.
  • Standard 3 lead transistor packages.
  • 9.50 ppm/°C temperature coefficient.
  • Excellent thermal regulation around 0.002%/V.
  • Maximum output current when voltage difference 15V is -2.2A.
  • Differential input and the output voltage is 40V, recommended 15V.
  • The maximum output current is -1.5A.
  • Available into To-220, SOT223, TO263 package.
  • Thermal overloaded protection.
  • Internal short circuit current limiting protection.
  • Peak output current constant over the temperature range of regulator.
  • Direct replacement for industry standard LM337.
  • Output transistors safe area compensation.
  • Floating operations for high voltage applications.
  • Eliminates stocking many fixed voltages.