Advantages and disadvantages of microwave communication

As we know that microwave frequencies are extremely high hence they offer extremely high bandwidth for communication channels. For example, a typical microwave communication channel can carry 4000 audio or 4  different video channels. Only optical communication channels have more bandwidth than these communications.

If you want to learn some different you are the right place for reading so keep reading for a few minutes for the right information regarding microwave communication. Let us have a deep insight into the pros and cons of microwave communication. 

Advantages of  Microwave communication :

  • It has a larger bandwidth and hence a large amount of information can be transmitted using it.
  • Microwave spectrum is divided into a different channel as per application.
  • Microwave technology helps to manage crowded spectrum with the use of highly selective receivers, modulation, spread spectrum techniques and, data compression, etc.
  • Microwave communication is used since earlier days as one of the lines of sight(LOS) communication in hilly remote areas where other means of wired communication not possible to be installed.

Disadvantages of microwave communication:

  • The main disadvantages are microwave communication is limited to line of sight mode only, other modes of communication are not possible.
  • At microwave frequencies, transmit time of current carrier, the electron is higher which takes large % of the actual signal. So, a conventional transistor does not function properly at microwave frequency compare to lower frequency.
  • This transmission does require no obstacle is present in the transmission path.
  • The cost of implementing the communication infrastructure is too much high.
  • Microwave is susceptible to rain, snow, and electromagnetic interference.
  • Lump component such as a resistor, inductor, and capacitors do not have the same characteristics at mucro wave frequencies as they have at lower frequencies hence it is difficult to implement these components at microwave frequencies.

Ultrasonic sensor advantages and disadvantages

An ultrasonic sensor is a sensor which measures the distance of the respective object by sending the sound wave of a specific frequency. This sound wave is reflected after the collision with the respective object and this wave is received by the ultrasonic receiver. Distance is measured by calculating sending and receiving time of this sound wave. Here this post gives information about the pros and cons of ultrasonic to better understand this topic.

Advantages of Ultrasonic sensor:

  • This sensor could have easily sensed the nature, shape and orientation of that specific object which is within the area of these sensors so sensing capability to sense all the material types.
  • These sensors have greater accuracy than another method for measuring the thickness and depth of the parallel surface.
  • This sensor easily interfaces with a microcontroller or any type of controller.
  • This sensor has high frequency, high sensitivity and high penetrating power, therefore, it can easily detect the external or deep object.
  • It can work in any adverse conditions.
  • Their sensor is easy to use, not dangerous during operation for nearby object person, equipment or material.
  • This sensor is not affected due to atmospheric dust, rain, and snow.
  • It provides a good reading in sensing large-sized objects with hard surfaces.
  • It has a higher sensing distance compare to inductive or capacitive proximity sensor types.

Disadvantages of Ultrasonic sensor:

  • It is very sensitive to variation in the temperature.
  • It has more difficulties in reading reflections from soft, curved and thin as well as a small object.
  • These sensors have a base detecting distance.
  • It required careful attention for an experienced technician.
  • Change in nature for example temperature, airborne particles, weight, air turbulence, influence ultrasonic reaction.
  • In this sensor, the main focuses of low thickness similar to froth and fabric have a tendency to assimilate sound vitality these materials may be hard to sense at long range.
  • When these sensors are interfaced with a microcontroller or any controller then experienced person or programmer is required.
  • When these sensors are used for inspection purpose then these could be water-resistive otherwise they could be damaged.

Difference between GPRS and EDGE

GPRS stands for  General packet radio services, It is used to give higher data speed over GSM, GPRS is the just extension to the older GSM technology to gain faster speed. Multimedia messaging services is the just features of GPRS. It allowed subscribers to send pictures, videos, or sound clips to each other just like text messages.  GPRS offer higher bit rate by the usage of a packet linked technology over GSM. 

EDGE called an Enhanced data rate for GSM Evolution, It also termed as Enhanced GPRS. EDGE technology that must use the same equipment as GSM with only a few minor modifications to provide faster speeds and is often regarded as a stepping stone towards 3G thus it is called 2.5G. EDGE is basically digital mobile phone technology but GPRS is mobile data services. 

Difference between GPRS and EDGE :

GPRS:

  • GPRS stands for General packet radio services.
  • GPRS is a mobile data service.
  • GMSK modulations must be used in GPRS.
  • The symbol rate of 270 ksym/s.
  • The modulation bit rate of 810 Kbps.
  • Radio data rate/ time slot 22.8 Kbps.
  • User data rate/ time slot 20 Kbps.
  • User data rate(8-time slots) is 160 Kbps
  • GPRS allows both 2G and 3G communication systems.

EDGE:

  • EDGE stands for Enhanced Data rate for GSM evolution.
  • EDGE is a digital mobile phone technology.
  • GMSK and 8-PSK modulation must be used for this technique.
  • The symbol rate of 270 ksym/s.
  • Modulation rate of 810 Kbps.
  • Radio data rate/time slot 69.2 Kbps.
  • User date rate/time slot 59.2 Kbps(MCS-9).
  • User data rate(8-time slots) is 473.6 Kbps.
  • EDGE allows existing TDMA and GSM  carriers to provide 3G services.

UDP advantages and disadvantages

UDP stands for user datagram protocol. UDP is a connectionless protocol in which data needed to send in chunks. UDP doesn't have error checking mechanism that is why it is less reliable but is faster in data transmission.

If you want to learn some different you are the right place for reading so keep reading for a few minutes for the right information regarding UDP.

Advantages of UDP :

  • UDP does not need to require a connection to be established and maintained
  • UDP uses a small packet size with a small header. This fewer bytes in the overhead makes UDP protocol need for less time in processing the packet as well as needless memory
  • UDP uses checksum with all packets for error detection
  • UDP can be used in events where a single packet of data needs to be exchanged between the hosts
  • Broadcast and multicast transmission are available with UDP
  • UDP doesn't restrict you to a connection based communication model, so startup latency in distributed applications is much lower, as is operating system overhead fast
  • UDP makes it faster as it need not have to wait on ACK or need have to data in memory until they are ACKed
  • All flow control, ack, transaction logging, etc is up to user programs, a broken OS implementation is not going to get in your way. Additionally, you only need to implement and  also use the features you have to need
  • The reception of UDP packet get them unmanaged  including block boundary
  • You want the application to have detailed control over what is sent across the network, UDP changes it  to be little 
  • No connection state data in the end hosts hence a server can support more UDP client than TCP
  • UDP communication can be more efficient than a guaranteed delivery data stream

Disadvantages of UDP :

  • UDP is an unreliable and connectionless protocol. 
  • UDP has no windowing and no function to ensure data is received in the same order as it was transmitted
  • UDP does not use any error control. So UDP detects an error in the received packet. It silently drops it
  • The router can be careless with UDP. They do not retransmit a UDP datagram after the collision and will often discard UDP packets before TCP packets
  • There is no flow control and no acknowledgement for received data
  • Only the application layer deals with error recovery. Hence applications can simply turn to the user to send the message again
  • In UDP a large number of users, transmitting a lot of data via UDP can cause congestion and no one do anything about it, so no congestion control
  • UDP has no flow control, congestion control. Implementation is the duty of the user program
  • They are no guaranteed with UDP.  So a packet may not be delivered or delivered twice or delivered must be out of order; you get no indication of this unless the listening program at the other end decides to say something

NFC full form

What is the full form of NFC?

  • Near Field Communication

What does NFC mean?

NFC is short-range high-frequency wireless communication technology and is a set of communication protocol that enables two electronic devices that enables the exchange of data between devices over about a 10 cm distances. NFC communication allows one and two-way communication between the endpoints, suitable for many applications.



Advantages and disadvantages of satellite communication

We all know that in today's world of totally depends on wireless communication technology, high definition television and global access to the internet, many people are unclear about the inherent advantages of satellite communications.

If you want to learn some different you are the right place for reading so keep reading for a few minutes for the right information regarding satellite communication.

Why does the satellite communication continue to grow? When is satellite is the best solution? here is some basic quick look at some key advantages of satellite communication.

Advantages of satellite communication :

  • Satellite communication services  being so portable and are very easy to install and  also have user-friendly as well
  • The satellite communication services are very helpful for the people staying in a remote area
  • The satellite communication services are very helpful for the department of defence where the people on the fields used the wired service every time
  • This service provides wider bandwidth based on SCPC or MCPC allocation types
  • It covers a wide area of the earth hence entire country or region can be covered with just one satellite
  • It is used for mobile as well as wireless communication applications find at  independent of location
  • It also co-exists with terrestrial microwave line of sight communication system 
  • It is easy to install and manage the cost per VSAT site
  • It does not incur much of costs per VSAT site
  • It has a small fading margin on the order of about 3 Db
  • It is easy to obtain service from one single provider and  also uniform service is  also available
  • It is used for voice, data and any other information transmission. Satellite services can be interfaced with internet infrastructure to obtain internet service. It is also used as a GPS application 
  • It is used a wide variety of applications which include weather forecasting, aircraft, radio/TV, connecting remote area, gathering intelligence in the military, navigation of ships, etc
  • LEO and MEO  both satellite types have lower propagation delay and lower losses compare to GEO satellite

Disadvantages of satellite communication :

  • The satellite has a life which is about 12-15 years. Due to this fact, another launch has to be planned before it becomes un-operational
  • Satellite manufacturing requires more time. Moreover, satellite design and development requires a higher cost
  • Satellite once launched require to be monitored and controlled on regular periods so that it remains in the orbit
  • The redundant component is used in the network design. This ensures more cost in the installation phase

Advantages of satellite communication over terrestrial communications :

  • Terrestrial communication is a point to point whereas satellite communication is a point to multipoint approach
  • Satellite is mainly wide-area broadcast media as transmitter antenna may be designed to provide signals to service areas as small as a city or as large as a country
  • The satellite costs are independent of distance whereas the terrestrial network costs time cost is proportional to the distance
  • Relatively fast installation. Once the satellite is in position, earth station can be installed and communication can be established in day or hours. But terrestrial circuits require time-consuming installations
  • Mobile communication is easy to achieve using satellite communication because of its broader coverage area and its flexibility in connecting mobile vehicles
  • Satellites have an average low operating cost. Manufacturing of satellites expensive but after that, it would operate typically for years 
  • The satellite itself is a single repeater. For terrestrial links, antennas are located at a specific height to overcome obstacles and also repeaters are to be used in between the links to compensate for path losses
  • Satellite systems can provide coverage to remote places where the terrestrial system fails.
  • In the case of LEO/MEO, a large number of satellites are needed to cover the radius of the earth. Moreover, visibility from the earth is very short duration which requires fast satellite to satellite handover. This makes the system very complex 

Difference between FTP and HTTP

HTTP and FTP both are the basic file transfer protocols that are used to transfer data between the client and the server. HTTP function is similar to the combined functioning FTP and SMTP. FTP is a protocol that sorts the problem when a communicating between client and server have a different configuration. 

The basic point that distinguishes  HTTP and FTP is that HTTP on request provides a web page from a web server to web browser, on the other hand, FTP is used to upload or download file between basically client and server. Let us the basic difference between FTP and HTTP are given below.

FTP :

  • FTP stands for file transfer protocol.
  • FTP is comparatively simple.
  • TCP port no 20 and 21.
  • RFC959, rfc756, RFC1738.
  • Used to transfer files from remote computer after the connection is established.
  • 2-way communication system where upload and download of files from client to the server can occur.
  • FTP is slower than HTTP.
  • FTP used to access and transfer files.
  • FTP can be accessed via the command line or a GUI.
  • FTP requires username and password for authentication.
  • FTP is better suited for large files.
  • Web clients and servers became many complexes since they need to support many protocols, scripting languages, files types, etc. Complexity is also a security problem.
  • With FTP the user, see's the directory structure on the server.

HTTP :

  • HTTPS stands for hypertext transfer protocol.
  • TCP port no 80 and 8080.
  • RFC2616, RFC7230, and RFC7231.
  • HTTP is used to transfer web pages from remote server after an internet connection is established.
  • 1-way communication system where content including picture and texts can be transferred from server to client.
  • HTTP is faster than FTP protocol when downloading one big file. So HTTP can use parallel chunk download which makes in 6x times faster than FTP.
  • HTTP is used to view websites, The common HTTP client is the browser.
  • Most widely used HTTP does not require username and password for authentication.
  • HTTP is better suited for the transferring for small files.
  • Through the use of hyperlink, the directory structure on the server may be hidden to the user.

Difference between FTP and HTTP :

  • The basic difference between FTP and HTTP  is that HTTP is used to access different websites on the internet while FTP is used to transfer files from one host to the another. Most of the people use HTTP while only a few people use FTP, mostly people who maintain websites.
  • HTTP is used to view websites while FTP is used to access and transfer files.
  • The common HTTP client is the browser while FTP can be accessed via the command line or graphical client of its own.
  • Downloading files can be either be via HTTP or FTP.
  • HTTP uses TCP port number 80 whereas FTP uses TCP port number 20 and 21.
  • HTTP establishes data connection only whereas the FTP establishes data as well as the control connection.
  • HTTP is efficient to transfer smaller files like web pages while FTP is efficient to transfer for large files.
  • In case you are using HTTP, HTTP appears in the URL of the websites and if you are using FTP, FTP appears in your URL.
  • HTTP does not require authentication while FTP uses the password for authentication
  • Web pages or data content transferred to the device using HTTP are not saved in the memory of that device whereas the data delivered to a device using FTP is saved in the memory of the device.
  • FTP is slowly being replaced by other protocols, HTTP will remain for the foreseeable for the future.

Conclusion :

HTTP is older and is being replaced with new protocols whereas the HTTP will be there in the near future.