Difference Between Symmetric and Asymmetric Encryption

The main key difference between these two types of encryption is that the symmetric encryption uses one key for both encryption and decryption, While asymmetric encryption uses a public key for encryption and private key for decryption. The main key difference between symmetric encryption and asymmetric encryption are listed below.

What is symmetric encryption?

Symmetric encryption is technique that allows the use of only one key for performing both the encryption and the decryption of the message shared over the internet. It is also known as the conventional method used for encryption.

What is asymmetric encryption?

Asymmetric encryption is an encryption technique that uses a pair of key for encryption and decryption. Asymmetric encryption uses the public key for the encryption of the message and the private key for the decryption of the message.

Difference between symmetric and asymmetric encryption:

  • Symmetric encryption only requires a single key for both encryption and decryption, while asymmetric encryption requires two key ones to encrypt and the other one to decrypt.
  • Symmetric encryption is an old technique while asymmetric encryption is the newer one.
  • The size of ciphertext is the same or smaller than original plain text, while in asymmetric encryption the size of ciphertext is the same or larger than the original plain text.
  • The encryption process is very fast in symmetric encryption, while in asymmetric encryption the encryption process is low.
  • Symmetric encryption only provides confidentiality while in asymmetric encryption provides confidentially, authenticity, and repudiation.
  • Symmetric encryption is used when a large amount of data is required to transfer, While asymmetric is used to transfer a small amount of the data. 
  • Asymmetric encryption is considered to be more secure than symmetric encryption when it uses two keys for the process.
  • Asymmetric encryption was introduced to complement the inherent problem of the need to share the key in the symmetrical encryption model, it will eliminate the need to share the key by using a pair of both public-private keys.
  • Asymmetric encryption takes longer to execute because of the complex logic involved. For this reason, symmetric encryption is used when transmitting data in bulk form.
  • The example of symmetric encryption is3DES.AES, DES, RC4 while in Diffie hellman, ECC, DSA, EI Gamal are the example of asymmetric encryption.
  • The drawback of this asymmetric encryption is that it takes more time than the symmetric encryption process.
  • The execution of asymmetric encryption algorithms is slower as compared to the symmetric encryption algorithms.

Difference Between Encryption and Decryption

The main comparison between encryption and decryption is, Encryption is a process of converting aa plain text to an encrypted or ciphertext which is not human readable. While decryption is the reverse of encryption and is a process of converting the encrypted or cipher text into plain text which is human readable. Here this article gives information about the difference between encryption and decryption to better understand this topic.

What is encryption?

Encryption is a process of converting normal data into an unreadable form. It helps you to avoid any unauthorized access to data. Whenever the data is sent between two separate machines. it is encrypted automatically using a secret key.

What is decryption?

Decryption is a method of converting the unreadable/coded data into its original form. The receiver of the data automatically allows you to convert the data from the coded into its original form.

The main key difference between encryption and decryption 

  • The encryption allows the conversion of plain text into ciphertext while the decryption is the technique of changing ciphertext into plain text.
  • In other words, encryption is the process of converting normal messages into meaningless messages. While decryption is the process of converting meaningless messages into its original form.
  • Encryption is done by the person who is sending the data to the destination. while decryption is done at the same person key is used for both the encryption and decryption process.
  • Encryption data is called ciphertext. As against decrypted data is known as plain text.
  • Encryption is an automatic process of the transmitter white the decryption is generally automatic but in some system, it is a manual operation. 
  • Encryption is performed as the sender end while decryption is done at the receiver end. 
  • In the encryption, the process the sender sends the data to the receiver after encrypted it, while in the decryption process, the receiver receives the information and converts it into plain text.
  • Any message can be encrypted either secret key or public key, while in decryption encrypted message can be decrypted with either secret key or private key.
  • MAC addresses ensure that the physic address of the computer technology is unique for encryption, while in decryption uses the IP address is a logical address of the computer and is used to uniquely locate computer connected via a network.
  • The same algorithm with the same key is used for both the encryption-decryption process.
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Difference Between Serial and Parallel Communication

Both serial and parallel communication is data transmission. The main comparison between serial and parallel communication is that in serial communication data transmission occurs bits by bit at a time, while in parallel communication multiple bits transmit at a time. Here this article gives information about the main key difference between serial and parallel communication to better understand this topic.

What is serial communication?

In serial communication, data is sent bit by bit from one computer to another in bi-direction where each bit has its close pulse rate. Eight bits are transferred at a time having a start and stop bits. 0 and 1 respectively. e

What is parallel communication?

In parallel communication, the various data bits are simultaneously trasmitted using multiple communication links between the sender and receiver.

Difference between serial and parallel communication

  • Serial communication supports higher bandwidth but parallel communication supports comparatively lower bandwidth.
  • Serial communication is straight forward and simples while in parallel communication Unreialble and complicated.
  • Serial communication is efficient for high-frequency operation. while in parallel communication shows its suitability more in case of low-frequency operations.
  • Due to the presence of a single communication link the speed of data transmission is slow. While multiple links in case of parallel communication allow data transmission at a comparatively faster rate.
  • Serial communication is suitable for long-distance transmission of data as against parallel communication is suitable for short-distance transmission of data.
  • Whenever there exists a need for system up-gradation then upgrading a system that uses serial communication is quite an easy task as compared to upgrading a parallel communication system.
  • Serial communication accomplishes full-duplex communication using only two channels, while the parallel communication uses the same number of channels as bits form of half-duplex communication. 
  • Due to the existence of a single link, the problem of crosstalk is not present in serial communication. While in multiple links increase the chances of crosstalk in parallel communication.
  • Cost is comparatively low in serial communication, while in parallel communication cost is high.
  • The example of serial communication is USB, SATA, I2C, SPI, etc. While the example of parallel communication is a computer to the printer and communication between an internal component in an embedded system.
  • The number of bit transferred at 1 clock pulse 1 bit in serial communication, while in parrel communication 8 bit or 1 byte. 
  • Error and noise are low for serial communication while in parallel communication error and noise are high.
  • In serial communication, all data bits transmitted over a common channel thus proper spacing is required to be maintained in order to avoid interference. While in parallel communication the utilization of multiple links reduces the chances of interference between the transmitted bits. 
  • The cable used in a serial transmission is thinner, longer, and more economical compared to the cable used in parallel transmission.
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Application of step up transformer

This article might help to understand the application of the transformer. Also, find out the advantages and disadvantages related to the transformer to learn more about the transformer.

Application of step-up transformer:

  • Step-up transformer is used in the transmission line for transmitting the high voltage produced by the alternator. 
  • It is used for electrical isolation, in a power distribution network, for controlling the home application, in a doorbell, etc.
  • It is used as a generating step-up transformer for stepping up the generated power to a higher voltage level for efficient transmission purposes.
  • It will decrease the current to keep the power into the device which is equal to the power out of it.
  • In the modern power system, electrical power is generated at a voltage of around  12kV to 25kV. The transformer will step up the voltage to between 110kV to 1000kV for transmission over long distances at very low loss.

Ammeter | Definition | Symbol | Formula | Type | Advantages | Uses

What is ammeter?

The meter uses for measuring the current is known as the instrument ammeter. The current is the flow of electrons whose unit is ampere. Hence the instrument which measures the flow of current in ampere is known as ampere meter or ammeter.

The ideal ammeter has zero internal resistance. But practically the ammeter has small internal resistance. The measuring range of the ammeter depends on the value of what resistance we have to set.

Symbolic representation:

Types of ammeter:

Following the type of ammeter regarding to construction:

  1. Permanent moving coil ammeter
  2. Moving iron ammeter
  3. Electro dynamometer ammeter
  4. Rectifier type ammeter 

1. Permanent moving coil ammeter

It is also called the PMMC instrument the conductors are placed between the pole of the percent magnet. When the current flows through the coil, it starts defecting. The deflection of the coil depends on the magnitude of current flows through it. This ammeter used only for the measurement of the direct current. 

2.  Moving coil ammeter

It is also called as the MI type of matter. The MI ammeter measure both the alternating and direct current. In this type of ammeter, the coil freely moves between the poles of a permanent magnet. When the current passes through the coil, it starts deflecting at a certain angle. The deflection of the coil is proportional to the current passes through the coil. 

3. Electro dynamometer ammeter

It is used for the measurement of both AC and DC. The accuracy of the instrument is high as compared to the permanent moving coil (PMMC) and Mvoinf coil (MI) instrument. The calibration of the instrument is the same both for AC and DC. If DC calibrations the instrument then without recalibration, it is used for AC 

4. Rectifier ammeter

It is used for measuring the alternating current. The instrument using the rectifying instrument which converts the direction of current and passes it to the PMMC instrument. Such a type of instrument is used for measuring the current in the communication circuit.

Application of ammeter:

  • The application of this device will range from school, colleges or to industry.
  • These are used to measure the current flow in the building to ensure that the flow is not too low or too high.
  • It is used with a thermocouple to check the temperature.
  • These current flowing through the coil produces the desire deflecting torque.
  • Electricians frequently use these devices to check the faults of the circuits in the building.
  • It is used in manufacturing and instrumentation companies to check the functionally of the devices.
  • This instrument is used to measure current in the circuit.
  • It is always connected series in the circuit and carries the current to be measure,
  • It is used with a thermocouple to check the temperature.
For detailed information>> Live use of an ammeter 

Advantages and disadvantages of ammeter

Advantages of ammeter:

  • It is strong, portable.
  • It does not dependent on the earth's magnetic field.
  • It could be made very accurate.
  • An ammeter is used to measure the magnitude of electric current in an electric circuit.

Disadvantages of ammeter:

  • It is heavy.
  • It needed multiple heavy meters to measure a different range of amperage.
  • It could not store data.

For detailed information>> Advantages and disadvantages of ammeter 

Difference between Step-up and Step-down transformer

The main key difference between step up and step down transformer is, step-up transformer raises the output voltage whereas the step-down transformer reduces the output current. Here this article gives information about the main key difference between step up and steps down transformer are listed below.

Definition of a step-down transformer:

A step-down transformer reduces the output voltage or in other words, converts high voltage, low current power into voltage, high current power. Our power circuit carries voltage from 230-110 v but the doorbell requires only 16v. Therefore the step-down transformer should be used to reduce the voltage from around 110v or the voltage from 220v to 16v. 

Definition of step-up transformer:

When the voltage is raised on the output side, That time the transformer is called the step-up transformer. In this transformer, the number of turns in the secondary winding is always greater than the turns in the primary winding because a high voltage is developed on the secondary side of a transformer. 

The main key difference between step up and step down transformer are listed below:

  • In Step-up transformer, the low voltage winding is the primary winding and high voltage winding is the secondary winding, while in step down transformer low voltage winding is the secondary winding.
  • When the output voltage is greater than its input voltage, it called a step-up transformer, while the step-down transformer output voltage is less. 
  • Step-up transformer extends the voltage from 220v-11kv or above, whereas step down transformer the voltage from 440-220v, 220-110v or 110-24v, 20v, 10v etc. 
  • In a step-up transformer, high voltage winding is the secondary winding, while the step-down transformer high voltage winding is primary winding.
  • In step-up current is low on the secondary winding, while in step down transformer current is high on the secondary winding. 
  • In step-up transformer mainly used in power plant, x-ray, machine, microwave, etc while in step down transformer mainly used in the doorbell, voltage converter, etc. 
  • In step-up transformer, the primary winding is made up of thick insulated copper wire and the secondary is made up of thin insulated copper wire while in step down transformer the output current is high so the thick insulated copper wire is used for making secondary winding. 
  • In a step-up transformer, the current and magnetic field is less developed in the secondary winding, and it is highly developed in the primary wiring. but in step down transformer voltage is low on secondary end thus the current and magnetic field high.
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  2. Difference between a power transformer and distribution transformer 

Difference between switch and bridge

It is apparent that both bridges and switches in computer networks are of great importance. However, they differ from each other in a certain way. Here this article gives a information about the difference between switch and bridge to better understand this topic.

What is a bridge?

The bridge is known as the network bridge, it is a network interconnection device used to connect two or more local area networks. This bridge network is a responsible for network bridging, which is received and amplifies signals from a network cable and then sends them to the next table. It connects multiple networks of the network at the data link layer.

What is the switch?

A switch is a network device that is used for electrical or optical signal forwarding. It provides an exclusive signal path for any two network nodes and that access the switch. It has multiple ports, each with a bridge function that can be connected to a LAN or some high-performance server or uses workstations.

The main key difference between switch and bridge are listed below:

  • Switches have a higher no of ports while the bridge gave a lesser number of ports.
  • Packet forwarding in switches is performed using ASICS. Thus a switch is hardware-based, While the packet forwarding in the bridge is performed using the software. These bridges are software-based. Thus switch is hardware-based while the bridge is software-based.
  • The switch is generally used for connecting single topology while the bridge is generally used for connecting two different topologies. 
  • Switch segments a large LAN into many smaller segments, While the bridge segments a local area network into a couple of smaller segments.
  • Switch contains many ports for LAN connectivity, While the Bridge contains only a few ports for LAN connectivity. 
  • Switch contains many instances of spanning tree, Bridge contains only one instance of spanning tree. 
  • The switch has a buffer for each link connected to it which is missing in a buffer.
  • Methods
  •  of switching of a switch can be store and forward, cut through or fragment free, while the method of switching of a bridge is a store and forward. 
  • Switches are used to connect the work stations or computer systems. If there are 20 workstations connected to a switch then will be separate collision for each of the nodes while the bridges divide the collision domain into two parts. The bridge can create a collision domain but not the broadcast domain.
  • The switch performs error checking which is not done in the buffer, while the bridge does not perform for error checking.  
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