Full form of USB

What is the full form of  USB?

  • Universal Serial Bus

What does USmean?

USB is for an industry-standard used to define the connector, cable ad communication protocols are used us for communication ad also a power supply twee laptops, some computers ad also an electronics device.

Advantages and disadvantages of csma/cd

Advantages of  CSMA/CD:
  • This technique is efficient for light to moderate load.
  • It was invented for wireless networks.
  • It is inexpensive.
  • It is fast. 
  • Very simple to implement.
  • It avoids a collision.
  • It detects collision within a short time 
  • CSMA/CD is a control software that is relatively simple ad produces little overhead. 
  • It uses CTS means cleat to send.
  • It uses RTS means a request to send.
  • More efficient than a simple CSMA.
  • CSMA/CD is beneficial because it avoids a wasteful transmission.
  • It is similar to CSMA but instead of sending the packet control frame are exchanged.
  • It uses three stages to avoid a collision. IFS, contention window, acknowledgment.
  • CSMA/CD is a control software that is relatively simple ad produces little overhead.
 Disadvantages of CSMA/CD:
  • Not scalable due to broadcasting.
  • The network may not e available when needed. 


Full form of ICT

What is the full form of ICT?

  • Information and Computation Technology

What does ICT mean?

ICT stats for Information and commutation technology. It is a nothing umbrella term that refers to technological tools and resources to handle network-based control ad monitoring, telecommunications, broadcast media and so on. 

ICT has become a basic red for today's society. the business organization uses ICT in many ways, for example, to increase productivity, post up their resources, etc. 

Advantages and disadvantages of 3 phase transformer

A three-phase transformer is used as a step up and step down for Ac voltage in various stages of a power system. Here this post gives the advantages and disadvantages of 3 phases transformed to better understand this topic.

Advantages of 3 phase transformer:

  • It is lighter and smaller.
  • High efficiency.
  • It occupies less floor space for equal rating.
  • It requires a few bushing. 
  • Less transformer oil is used.
  • Less external wiring.
  • Less material for the same three-phase power ad voltage rating
  • Low cost compared with three units of single-phase transformer.
  • Transportation is easy and also the transportation cost is less.
  • Bus bar structure and switcher installation for a single three-phase unit are simpler.
  • Being prewired and ready to install these can be easier to install. 
  • To provide the same KVA the core material required is very less compared to a bank of three single-phase transformer.
  • Only three-terminal is required to be brought out in the case of a three-phase transformer.
  • It requires 1/3 as much iron for the magnetic circuit as compared to a bank of three 1 phase transformer.

Disadvantages of 3 phase transformer:

  • If the failure of only one phase puts the entire transformer out of service.

Full form of CSMA

What is the full form of CSMA?

  • Carrier Sese Multiple Access

What does CSMA mean?

CSMA is a MAC protocol. It is defined how network devices respond when two device responds when two device attempt to use a data channel simultaneously add encounter a data collision. It uses the carrier sense to defer transmission until other stations are transmission.

Difference Between Single Phase and Three Phase Induction Motor

The main key difference between single-phase and three-phase induction motor are listed below:

  • Single-phase motors are easy to repair and maintain while in three-phase induction motor maintenance difficult.
  • The efficiency of a single-phase motor is low, whereas the efficiency of the three-phase induction motor is high.
  • The starting torque of the single-phase induction motor is low, while the starting torque of the three-phase induction motor is high.
  • Single-phase motor is simple in construction, reliable and economical as compared to the three-phase induction motor.
  • The power factor of a single-phase induction motor is low as compared to that of three-phase of induction motor.
  • Single-phase motor uses single-phase supply and a three-phase induction motor uses a three-phase supply.
  • Single-phase motor is mostly used in a domestic appliance such as a mixer grinder, fans, etc while a three-phase induction motor is mostly used in the industries.
  • In the three-phase system, more current voltages drop so the distance between 2 substations is less. so we require a number of the substation while in single-phase induction we can locate the substation near a high voltage grid which runs close to main railway routes and so the initial cost of transmission reduces.
  • In the three-phase system, the 2 overhead wire is required so cost is increases compared to the single-phase system. 
  • AS the weight of the conductor is less, the supporting tower becomes higher in the single-phase system compared to the 3 phase system,.
  • Due to low current, the I2R losses are reduced, so the transmission efficiency is increased while in 3 phase system the 3.3Kv is less as compared to 25Kv so because of low voltage current is high so I2R losses are more and also a less transmission efficiency.

Advantages of three-phase system over single phase systems

The main advantages of 3 phase system compared to a single-phase system:

  • The output of 3 phase machine is always greater than a single-phase machine of the same size.
  • The three-phase system gives a steady output.
  • For a given frame size a polyphase machine gives a higher output than the use of a single-phase machine.
  • The power factor of single-phase machines are poor compared to three-phase machines.
  • 3 phase motor will have uniform torque whereas single phase motor will have pulsating torque.
  • Single-phase systems can be obtained from the three-phase supply system, vice versa is not possible.
  • Polyphase systems can set up a rotating magnetic field in stationary windings.
  • The parallel operation of a three-phase generator will be simple as compared to single-phase generators because of pulsating reaction in a single-phase generator.
  • The power delivered is constant. In the single-phase circuit, the power delivered is pulsating and objectionable for many applications.
  • For transmission of electrical power, a three-phase supply requires less copper or some less conducting material than that use of a single-phase system, for a given voltage compare and voltage rating.
  • Single-phase machines are not self-starting machines, on the other hand, three-phase machines are self-starting due to the rotating magnetic field.
  • For a while in use a three-phase system, converting systems like rectifiers the DC voltage waveform becomes smoother with the increase in the number of phases of the system. 
  • In polyphase induction motors are self-starting and are more efficient while in single-phase motor has no starting torque and require an auxiliary means for starting.
  • Three-phase motors are very robust, cheap, smaller, provide a steadier output and require little maintenance compared with single-phase motors.