Difference Between Valence Band and Conduction Band

The valence band and conduction band both are two different energy levels separated by a certain amount of energy. The main key difference between valance band and conduction band is that the valance band specifies the energy level of electrons present in the valence bandshell of an atomic structure while the conduction band holds those electrons that are responsible for conduction.


Definition of the valence band:

It is basically defined as the energy band that comprises of valence electrons present in the outermost shell of an atomic structure. These valence electrons, when provided with sufficient energy, get changed into free electrons and move to conduction band thereby causing conductivity.


Definition of condition band:

The conduction band is the band of electrons orbital that electrons can bounce up into from the valance band when energized. At the point when the electrons are in these orbital, they have enough energy to move freely in the material. This movement of electrons makes an electric current flow. The valance band is the furthest electron orbital of a particle of a particular material that electron involves.

The main key difference between the valence band and conduction band are listed below:


  • The valence band is present below the fermi energy level. While the conduction band is present or their in above the Fermi level in the energy band diagram.
  • The density of electrons is comparatively higher in valance than in the conduction band.
  • When external excitation is provided then electrons present in the valence band moves out of it. However, because of external energy, the electrons move into the conduction band.
  • The valance band is a lower energy state whereas the conduction band is comparatively at a higher energy level.
  • Valance band the energy band formed by a series of energy levels containing valence electrons while the conduction band is higher energy level band.
  • The valance band always filled with electrons while the conduction band partially filled by the electrons.
  • The highest energy level which can be occupied by an electron in the valence band at 0K is called the Fermi level, while in conduction band current flow due to such electrons.
  • The electrons in the valence band experience strong force by the nucleus. As against the nucleus exhibits very weak or almost negligible force on the electrons at the conduction band.
  • While using the valence band, no flow of current due to electron present but the conduction band free electron is able to move anywhere the volume of the solid.
  • At room temperature, the valence band is usually either partially or completely filled, whereas the conduction band is generally empty or partially filled at room temperature.
Explore more information:
  1. Difference between n type and p-type semiconductor
  2. Difference between conduction and induction
  3. Difference between conductor and semiconductor
  4. Difference between an extrinsic and intrinsic semiconductor
  5. Difference between PN junction diode and Schottky diode
  6. Difference between static and current electricity

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